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## Chapter 1

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**Chapter 1**Introduction: Digital Systems & Logic Design By Taweesak Reungpeerakul**Digital Systems**• Digital and Analog Quantities • Parameters of Pulse Waveform • Basic Logic • Combinational Logic • Digital Integrated Circuits • An example of Digital System • Design Flow 242-208 CH1**1.1 Digital & Analog Quantities**• Analog Quantity? • Continuous Values • Digital Quantity? • Discrete Set of Values • Which one has more advantages? • Digital Quantity (process & transmit) • Efficiency • Reliability 242-208 CH1**Analog & Digital Example**242-208 CH1**Analog System**Digital and Analog System Analog & Mixed System 242-208 CH1**1.2 Binary Digits, Logic Levels, and Digital Waveforms**• Binary Digits: 0 Low, 1 High • Code: Group of Bits • Logic Level: represented by voltages 242-208 CH1**Digital Waveforms**• Pulse Positive-going pulse Negative-going pulse • Waveform Characteristic • Question f = 1/T T = 1/f tW : pulse width tr : rise time tf : fall time T : period f : frequency Duty Cycle = ( tw / T ) 100% 242-208 CH1**Clock and Bits Waveforms**• Clock is a periodic waveform (signal) in which each interval between pulse equals the time for one bit 242-208 CH1**Timing Diagrams**• How 2 or more waveforms change and relate 242-208 CH1**1.3 Basic Logic Operations**242-208 CH1**1.4 Basic Logic Functions**242-208 CH1**Mux**Demux Basic Logic Functions (cont) 2n n 242-208 CH1**Flip-flops**Counters Registers Basic Logic Functions (cont) 242-208 CH1**1.5 Digital Integrated Circuits**• IC Packages: DIP, SMT, SOIC, PLCC, LCCC, FP • IC Complexity Classifications • SSI: gate ≥ 12, basic gates & flip-flops • MSI: 12 ≤ gate ≥ 99, logic functions • LSI: 100 ≤ gate ≥ 9999, including memory • VLSI: 10,000 ≤ gate ≥ 99,999 • ULSI: gate ≥ 100,000 242-208 CH1**Integrated Circuit Technologies**• Types of Transistors • Bipolar Junction Transistors • MOSFETs (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors) • Bipolar used in: transistor-transistor logic (TTL) and emitter-couple logic (ECL) • MOSFETs used in: complementary MOS (CMOS) and n-channel MOS (NMOS) 242-208 CH1**1.6 Testing and Troubleshooting Instruments**• Oscilloscope • Analog • Digital • Logic Analyzer • DC Power Supply • Function Generator • Digital Multimeter 242-208 CH1**1.7 Digital System Application**242-208 CH1**Design Flow**242-208 CH1