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4.1.1 Biodiversity. The amount of biological diversity per unit area. It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity. Biodiversity. Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species. Genetic Diversity.

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the amount of biological diversity per unit area it includes genetic habitat and species diversity
The amount of biological diversity per unit area.

It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity

Biodiversity

habitat diversity

Variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, wetlands, and other biological communities,

(niches per unit area).

Habitat Diversity

slide7

Arctic Circle

Arctic Circle

60°

EUROPE

NORTH

AMERICA

ASIA

30°N

Tropic of Cancer

Atlantic

Ocean

AFRICA

Pacific

Ocean

Pacific

Ocean

150°

120°

90°

30°W

60°E

90°

150°

SOUTH

AMERICA

Indian

Ocean

Tropic of Capricorn

AUSTRALIA

30°S

Antarctic Circle

60°

ANTARCTICA

Critical and endangered

Threatened

Stable or intact

Projected Status of Biodiversity

1998–2018

slide8

What are the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat ?

slide9

How does diversity change during succession?

  • How does habitat diversity influence species diversity and genetic diversity?
  • How does ecosystem complexity, with its variety of nutrient and energy pathways, provide stability?
  • How do human activities (agriculture, mining, logging, etc.) modify succession?
  • What are the potential positive and negative results of human activities that simplify ecosystems? (monocrop agriculture)
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Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?

Instrumental value:

usefulness to us.

Intrinsic value:

because they exist,

Regardless of whether

they are useful to us or

not.

goods

Foxglove

Pacific yew

Digitalis purpurea,

Europe

Digitalis for heart failure

Taxus brevifolia,

Pacific Northwest

Ovarian cancer

Goods
  • Food, fuel, ecosystems, species, fiber, lumber, paper, …
  • 90% of today’s food crops
  • 40% of all medicines (85% of antibiotics)
ecological services
Ecological Services:
  • Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biosphere
    • Photosynthesis
    • Pollination
    • Soil formation and maintenance
    • Nutrient recycling
    • Moderation of weather extremes
    • Purification of air and water
information
Information:
  • Genetic information: adaptation and evolution
  • Genetic information for genetic engineering
  • Educational and scientific information

Option:

  • People would be willing to pay in advance to preserve the option of directly using a resource such as a tree, an elephant, a forest or a clean lake.
recreation
Recreation:
  • Hunting, fishing, swimming, scuba diving, water skiing, . . . .
  • Eco-tourism
  • Existence
  • Aesthetic
  • Protect natural capital for future generations

Nonutilitarian: