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LIBRARY & RESEARCH SKILLS GNED 500 Global Citizenship: from Social Analysis to Social Action 8 Feb 2012 SOtDonna outerbridge , Instructor; Liz Dobson, Librarian
On Library homepage… Guides to help you with your assignments
Documenting your sources APA style (American Psychological Association rules)
Your work (essay, letter, report, pamphlet, etc.) normally includes 3types of material… • Your ideas • Your summaries of others’ ideas and facts • Quotations from your sources (MLA Handbook, 2009)
Your use of others’ ideas and words… • “Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due.” • Source: APA Ethics Code Standard 8.11, Plagiarism. (2010). In Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA, p.15). “ “So let us be loving, hopeful and optimistic. And we’ll change the world.” - Jack Layton (2011)
. Why give credit to others whose work you use?
Why acknowledge your sources? • You demonstrate that you, the writer, are a genuine researcher who has done the considerable work of investigating authorities on your topic. • You acknowledge your indebtedness to others. • You add weight to your statements & arguments by citing authorities that support you views. • You enable your readers to pursue the topic further, &/or evaluate your use of others’ work. - Canadian Writers Handbook. 4th ed., p. 77
When you don’t acknowledge your sources… Plagiarism
Sample text page: examples of in-text citations in APA style
Example of quotation fewer than 40 words(See rule in APA Manual, p. 171) Interpreting these results, Roberts (2003) suggested that “the information gathered in this study cannot predict an outcome with certainty” (p. 540), thus lending real doubt regarding the future.
Example of quotation 40 or more words(See rule in APA Manual, p. 171) (Rule is to use double spacing: single spacing is used here for presentation purposes only.) Others have contradicted this view: Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large –scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. In these instance, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)
APA Style ReferencesReferences (list) -Footnotes/Endnotes - a direct connection to in-text citations
“References …listed alphabetically at the end of your paper. Each reference you cite in-text must appear in the References list, and each entry in the References list must be cited in-text. (APA Manual, p. 174)
As a general rule, you should cite all ideas, facts and quotations from others that you use in your work. When might you NOT have to cite? (When in doubt, cite it.)
Most library databases provide APA help… Print, email, or save (Email option here displayed)
[Microsoft Word 2010 doc] “References” tab provides help with APA style – references and in-text citations
Social Analysis Report topics • Global warming effects on natural resources (or on national economies, etc.) • Sexual discrimination against women in the workplace • Influence of video games on violence • Effects of automobile pollution on human health • Messages about women in the media
… Messages about women in the media
[word doc] Express your topic in the form of a research question. This expresses a specific point of interest about the topic. Then identify the main concepts in your question.
[Word doc] Be prepared to search using a variety of keywords & phrases – Language is rich. People often use different terminology for the same concept Note use of the * This is a wildcard that tells the search engine to look for all words that start with the same letters.
Search for publications using the library’s “Search Everything” Google-like search engine…
Use the Help screen for instructions, if needed… Women AND (stereotypes OR sexism) AND (media OR films OR television)
Use the filters on left to refine your search – e.g. limit to articles from scholarly publications, including peer-review
Example of a scholarly (peer reviewed) journal article – write-up of original research done on how the media typically depict women terrorists as interlopers in an utterly male domain – when, in fact, women have been among the leaders and followers of terrorist organizations throughout the history of modern terrorism.
“Peer reviewed” articles Also called “refereed” or “academic” or “scholarly” Well researched, authoritative work Often write-ups of original research done – with literature reviews, statistics, findings, conclusions. A committee of scholars must approve quality before the editor publishes Most databases allow you to limit to peer reviewed if you want 41 41 41
Example of a scholarly (peer reviewed) journal article – write-up of original research done… Note: in-text citations
Example of a scholarly (peer reviewed) journal article – Note: References at end of article which provide full publication info for citations made in the essay above …
Use other filters on left column to refine your search, if needed… E.g. subject terms filter will add relevancy to your search results
Several filters are here used to refine the search – resulting in reduced number of results - 380 records now
This search engine- like Google – offers an Advanced Search option…
Other filters found on the Advanced Search page – limit terms to the title field limit, or specify journal source