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Analysis of the International Markets for Tilapia. Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona, USA & Vice President, American Tilapia Association President Elect, US. Chapter of World Aquaculture Soc. Introduction.

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analysis of the international markets for tilapia

Analysis of the International Markets for Tilapia

Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.University of ArizonaTucson, Arizona, USA

&

Vice President, American Tilapia Association

President Elect, US. Chapter of World Aquaculture Soc.

introduction
Introduction
  • Tilapia are one of the most important domesticated fish today.
  • Tilapia will be the single most important aquaculture product in the 21st Century
introduction3
Introduction
  • Today I will explain why I believe that tilapia markets will continue to expand
  • Where there may be problems in supplies
  • Advances in production
  • Opportunities in world markets
current status of tilapia markets
Current Status of Tilapia Markets
  • Production widely distributed around the world.
  • Grows well in most production systems.
  • Established market demand.
  • Popular in several product forms.
production widely distributed around the world
Production widely distributed around the world.
  • FAO reports production in 85 countries.
  • East Asia, Indonesia, Latin America, Caribbean, Middle East, are primary tropical producers
  • Germany, Belgium, Spain, Canada, Korea, Japan, most states in US
production widely distributed around the world6
Production widely distributed around the world.
  • Wild catch being replaced by farm raised
  • Used in many cuisine, hundreds of recipes
  • Tilapia, boulti, pla nil, mojara, St. Peters fish, freshwater snapper
grows well in most production systems
Grows well in most production systems
  • Ponds
  • Cages
  • Raceways, round tanks, recirculating systems
  • Ranching (lake releases)
  • Freshwater, Brackish water, Estuarine, and Marine
grows well in most production systems8
Grows well in most production systems
  • Polyculture with shrimp, catfish, carp
  • Herbivorous and /or omnivorous
  • Good growth in fertilized ponds
  • Many byproducts can be used in tilapia feeds
ponds and cages
Ponds and cages

Reservoir pond in Arizona

Farm pond in Brazil

cages in egypt
Cages in Egypt

10 m2 cages near Alexandria

cages in irrigation reservoirs
Cages in Irrigation Reservoirs

100 m2 cages in Philippines

intensive ponds
Intensive ponds

Ponds in Arizona

Ponds in Costa Rica

intensive tanks
Intensive tanks

Tanks in Arizona

Tanks in California

intensive raceway systems
Intensive Raceway Systems

Raceways in Arizona

Raceways in Mexico

other benefits of tilapia
Other benefits of Tilapia
  • Simple hatchery technology
  • Disease resistant
  • Grow well at high densities
  • Several color variants available
  • More “domesticated” than most aquaculture crops
established market demand
Established market demand
  • Accepted in many national dishes
  • Popular in many forms
  • Live, Whole, fillets, fresh and frozen, smoked, sashimi
problem areas
Problem areas
  • Low fillet recovery rate
  • Slow growing females
  • Off-flavors
advances and solutions low fillet recovery rate
Advances and Solutions: Low fillet recovery rate
  • Selective breeding programs (GIFT, Israel, US)
  • Tilapia genome project
  • Transgenics - Growth hormones
  • Growth enhancers - Bovine Somatotropins
  • Better processing equipment
advances and solutions slow growing females
Advances and Solutions: Slow growing females
  • Methyltestosterone for sex-reversal
  • Genetically male tilapia
  • All male hybrids
  • High density culture
  • O. niloticus with larger females
advances and solutions off flavors
Advances and Solutions: Off-flavors
  • Depuration systems
  • Control of blue-green algae
  • Production in system with limited access to benthic algae
why tilapia market will surpass other species in importance
Why tilapia market will surpass other species in importance.
  • Production constraints being reduced, and costs decreasing
  • Markets are still expanding
  • Market prices holding
  • More training & experience of growers, processors and marketers
why tilapia markets will surpass other species in importance
Why tilapia markets will surpass other species in importance.
  • Ecologically sustainable
  • Popular with environmentalists
  • Consumption not restricted by religious observances
  • Mild flavor preferred by many consumers
why tilapia markets will surpass other species in importance27
Why tilapia markets will surpass other species in importance.
  • Carp: markets are limited
  • Salmonids and shrimps need high levels of fish meal, limited ingredients for diets
  • Most other species need higher water quality, competition for sites
major tilapia producers
Major Tilapia Producers
  • China - 150,000 metric tons / year
  • Philippines - 95,000 mt / year
  • Taiwan - 90,000 mt / year
  • Mexico - 90,000 mt / year
  • Indonesia - 50,000 mt / year
  • Thailand - 40,000 mt year
major tilapia products in international trade
Major Tilapia Products in International Trade
  • China - whole frozen, IQF fillets
  • Philippines - all domestic
  • Taiwan - whole & IQF, sashimi
  • Mexico - all domestic
  • Indonesia - IQF fillets
  • Thailand - IQF fillets
estimated cost of production
Estimated cost of production
  • China - $1.00 / kg
  • Philippines - $1.10 / kg
  • Taiwan - $1.50 / kg
  • Mexico - $1.30 / kg
  • Indonesia - $1.20 / kg
  • Thailand - $1.30 / kg
international markets
International markets
  • China has taken a large % of Taiwan share
  • China has growing domestic demand
  • Honduras has rapid expansion
  • Colombia, Cuba, Brazil and Mexico are supplying strong domestic markets
  • Prices on international markets will not increase from present levels.
international markets32
International markets
  • Ecuador has passed Costa Rica as supplier of fillets to US
  • Ecuador integrating with shrimp production
  • Colombia, Thailand and Mexico were exporters to US, but exports levels decreased while production increased
  • Philippines is big producer, a few exports to Japan
ecuador in international market
Ecuador in International Market
  • Replacing shrimp because of white spot disease
  • Using shrimp infrastructure
  • Exporting to US and EU
  • Will they revert to shrimp if disease is controlled?
colombia in international market
Colombia in International Market
  • Before 1980 had strong domestic market
  • Developed export trade to US
  • Domestic market has grown so strong that exports have ended
  • Colombia imports tilapia from Venezuela and Ecuador
international market changes
International market changes
  • Increasing domestic consumption in producing countries especially Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, C.R.
  • Philippines & China more exports
  • EU is developing demand
  • Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Kenya, other countries of Africa will supply EU
current international market trends
Current International Market Trends
  • Increase in demand for all forms of tilapia
  • Demand increase will be greatest for fresh fillets
  • Prices have been constant for several years and will remain stable, will not increase with inflation.
current international market trends42
Current International Market Trends
  • US and EU growers will concentrate on live sales and highly processed forms
  • Southeast Asia and Latin America will be primary US suppliers
  • Africa, Latin America and Caribbean will supply EU
new product forms
New product forms

Smoked tilapia

Sashimi grade tilapia

carbon monoxide debate
Carbon monoxide debate
  • CO used to preserve fillets
  • Maintains “fresh appearance”
  • Still under review as treatment
  • May improve shelf life, reduce bacteria
  • May have to report as treated with a preservative
marketing goals for peruvian tilapia producers
Marketing goals for Peruvian Tilapia producers
  • Increase domestic demand
  • Process in Peru (lower costs, value added, higher returns)
  • Provide variety to local markets
  • Maintain environmental awareness
  • Market tilapia as ecologically efficient and sustainable
marketing goals for peruvian tilapia producers46
Marketing goals for Peruvian Tilapia producers
  • Use seafood restaurants for product introductions
  • Grocery stores and seafood stores
  • Use story of Christ and the Miracle
  • Compete with chicken, beef, pork as well as other fish
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