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Acids – Arrhenius Definition Produce Hydronium ions (H 3 O +1 ) in water. Hold up! First we need to review!. H. +1. -1. +1. H. O. H. water. O. O. H. H. H. H. Hydronium ion.

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hold up first we need to review
Acids – Arrhenius Definition

Produce Hydronium ions (H3O+1) in water

Hold up! First we need to review!

H

+1

-1

+1

H

O

H

water

O

O

H

H

H

H

Hydronium ion

By this definition, if an acid is to give a H+1 to water, then all acids will have hydrogen as the cation (first element written).

Bases – Arrhenius Definition

Bases produce the hydroxide ion in water

Hydroxide ion

ok here we go the ph scale

1

7

14

Highly acidic

neutral

Very basic (not acidic)

Ok, here we go… the pH Scale
  • It is a scale to measure the acidity of a sample. It measures the concentration of hydronium (H3O+1)ions in the solution.
ph of common substances
pH of Common Substances

water (pure)

7.0

vinegar

2.8

soil

5.5

gastric

juice

1.6

carbonated

beverage

3.0

drinking water

7.2

bread

5.5

1.0 M

NaOH

(lye)

14.0

blood

7.4

potato

5.8

orange

3.5

1.0 M

HCl

0

milk of

magnesia

10.5

urine

6.0

apple juice

3.8

detergents

8.0 - 9.0

bile

8.0

lemon

juice

2.2

milk

6.4

tomato

4.2

ammonia

11.0

seawater

8.5

bleach

12.0

coffee

5.0

13

11

12

14

1

9

10

0

2

3

4

6

7

5

8

basic

neutral

acidic

[H+] = [OH-]

Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 335

how does the scale work
How does the scale work?

pH scale

: measures acidity/basicity

Søren Sorensen

(1868 - 1939)

ACID

BASE

10x

10x

10x

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

NEUTRAL

Each step on pH scale represents a factor of 10.

pH 5 vs. pH 6(10X more acidic)

pH 3 vs. pH 5 (100X different)

pH 8 vs. pH 13 (100,000X different)

slide6

radius = 112.8 cm

radius = 35.7 cm

radius = 11.3 cm

radius = 3.6 cm

radius = 1.1 cm

radius = 0.1128 cm

.

pH = 2

pH = 3

pH = 1

.

pH = 4 5 6

slide7

Acid

pH = 7

[OH-]

[H+] =

[H+]

[OH-]

Acidic

Basic

The pH Scale

Base

Neutral

ph of common substance
pH of Common Substance

pH [H1+] [OH1-] pOH

14 1 x 10-14 1 x 10-0 0

13 1 x 10-13 1 x 10-1 1

12 1 x 10-12 1 x 10-2 2

11 1 x 10-11 1 x 10-3 3

10 1 x 10-10 1 x 10-4 4

9 1 x 10-9 1 x 10-5 5

8 1 x 10-8 1 x 10-6 6

6 1 x 10-6 1 x 10-8 8

5 1 x 10-5 1 x 10-9 9

4 1 x 10-4 1 x 10-10 10

3 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-11 11

2 1 x 10-2 1 x 10-12 12

1 1 x 10-1 1 x 10-13 13

0 1 x 100 1 x 10-14 14

NaOH, 0.1 M

Household bleach

Household ammonia

Lime water

Milk of magnesia

Borax

Baking soda

Egg white, seawater

Human blood, tears

Milk

Saliva

Rain

Black coffee

Banana

Tomatoes

Wine

Cola, vinegar

Lemon juice

Gastric juice

More basic

7 1 x 10-7 1 x 10-7 7

More acidic

slide9
pH

pH = -log [H1+]

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A World of Choices 1999, page 285

acid base concentrations
Acid – Base Concentrations

10-1

pH = 3

pH = 11

OH-

H3O+

pH = 7

10-7

concentration (moles/L)

H3O+

OH-

OH-

H3O+

10-14

[H3O+]<[OH-]

[H3O+]>[OH-]

[H3O+]=[OH-]

acidic

solution

neutral

solution

basic

solution

Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 332

ph calculations

pH

pH + pOH = 14

pOH

pH Calculations

[H3O+]

pH = -log[H3O+]

[H3O+] = 10-pH

[H3O+] [OH-] = 1 x10-14

[OH-]

pOH = -log[OH-]

[OH-] = 10-pOH

ph poh 14

pH

pH + pOH = 14

pOH

pH + pOH = 14

This is true because 1 to 14 is the whole range of the scale. Therefore, what ever part is not hydronium ions is composed of hydroxide ions.

auto ionization of water
Auto-ionization of Water

[H3O+]

  • Water will split into ions

2 H2O  H3O+1 + OH-1

  • Water will do this to make sure that they come to equilibrium and this is true:

[H3O+1] × [OH-1] = 1 × 10-14

  • Therefore, if you know the concentration of one you always know the concentration of the other! How handy!

[H3O+] [OH-] = 1 x10-14

[OH-]

example problems
Example Problems !!

Example:

Find the pH of an acid if the pOH is 12

example problems1
Example Problems !!

Example:

Find the pH if the concentration of [H3O+1] is 0.25 M

Is the pH acidic or basic?

example problems2
Example Problems !!

Example:

Find the [H3O+1] if the pH is 2.7

example problems3
Example Problems !!

Example:

Find the [OH-1] if the pH is10.7

***Keep in mind there is more than one way to go about this***