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Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present PowerPoint Presentation
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Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

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Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present

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    1. Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1

    2. What Is Psychological Abnormality? The Elusive Nature of Abnormality Any or all could be part of a disorder; can they define a disorder? Deviance Distress Dysfunction Danger Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Concept of abnormality usually depends on the norms and values of the society in question. Deviance: from what?; Distress: Dx but no distress, distress but no Dx; Dysfunction: define milieu (homeless man); Danger: perp or victim Continuum: voice calls your name normal; voice then says kill not normal Concept of abnormality usually depends on the norms and values of the society in question. Deviance: from what?; Distress: Dx but no distress, distress but no Dx; Dysfunction: define milieu (homeless man); Danger: perp or victim Continuum: voice calls your name normal; voice then says kill not normal

    3. Defining Abnormality Ultimately, each society selects general criteria for defining abnormality and then uses those criteria to judge particular cases All behavior on a continuum: extremes likely to be abnormal Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1

    4. Changing cultural norms

    5. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1

    6. 6 Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e Chapter 1 What Is Treatment? Once abnormality is determined, clinicians attempt to treat it Treatment (or therapy) is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior It, too, requires careful definition Do clinicians change their clients behavior? Is that their role? My opinion: therapist provides the tools for change light bulb joke The goal is always change, but the means we provide for change depends on therapist orientation: Jerome Franks defn: includes sufferer (client, patient) trained healer (note: self-help groups like 12-step programs can also be effective) and a series of contactsMy opinion: therapist provides the tools for change light bulb joke The goal is always change, but the means we provide for change depends on therapist orientation: Jerome Franks defn: includes sufferer (client, patient) trained healer (note: self-help groups like 12-step programs can also be effective) and a series of contacts

    7. What Is Treatment? According to Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have three essential features: A sufferer who seeks relief from the healer A trained, socially accepted healer, whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer, often with the aid of a group, tries to produce certain changes in the sufferers emotional state, attitudes, and behavior Differentiate therapy from therapeuticDifferentiate therapy from therapeutic

    8. What Is Treatment? treatment is surrounded by conflict and confusion: Lack of agreement about goals or aims Lack of agreement about successful outcome Lack of agreement about failure Are clinicians seeking to cure? To teach? Are sufferers patients (ill) or clients (having difficulty)?

    9. How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past? Ancient Views and Treatments Greek and Roman Views and Treatments Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Past treatment followed assumed cause not always case today. Ancients: evil spirits, tx trephination; Greeks & Romans: internal causes, ex. Hippocrates (460-377 bc) physical problems, imbalance in fluids, tx restore balance; Middle Ages rise in power of clergy, return of demonology, exorcisms; Past treatment followed assumed cause not always case today. Ancients: evil spirits, tx trephination; Greeks & Romans: internal causes, ex. Hippocrates (460-377 bc) physical problems, imbalance in fluids, tx restore balance; Middle Ages rise in power of clergy, return of demonology, exorcisms;

    10. How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past? (continued) The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment The Early Twentieth Century: The Somatogenic and Psychogenic Perspectives Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Renaissance: return to physical causes Johann Weyer founder of modern psychopathology, treat patients with kindness rise of asylums good intentions negated by overcrowding, understaffing, late 1700s Philippe Pinel in France argued again for treating patients with kindness William Tuke used similar method in England called moral treatment; Benjamin Rush (father of modern American psychiatry) brought moral treatment to US.; Dorthea Dix lobbied for state-run facilities and established 32 state hospitals thinking care could be controlled resulting in better care. Just as earlier asylums, good idea that didnt work.Renaissance: return to physical causes Johann Weyer founder of modern psychopathology, treat patients with kindness rise of asylums good intentions negated by overcrowding, understaffing, late 1700s Philippe Pinel in France argued again for treating patients with kindness William Tuke used similar method in England called moral treatment; Benjamin Rush (father of modern American psychiatry) brought moral treatment to US.; Dorthea Dix lobbied for state-run facilities and established 32 state hospitals thinking care could be controlled resulting in better care. Just as earlier asylums, good idea that didnt work.

    11. Current Trends How Are People with Severe Disturbances Cared For? How Are People with Less Severe Disturbances Treated? A Growing Emphasis on Preventing Disorders and Promoting Mental Health The Growing Influence of Insurance Coverage Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 1950s discovery of many psychotropic medications; deinstitutionalization; too few community resources, revolving door syndrome- many severely disturbed could live in the community if we had sufficient outpatient resources. Less severe disturbances outpatient therapy insurance better now paying for it but some concerns about third-party payers. Prevention community programs targeting at risk populations poverty, dangerous environments, positive psychology reslient (hardy) individuals.1950s discovery of many psychotropic medications; deinstitutionalization; too few community resources, revolving door syndrome- many severely disturbed could live in the community if we had sufficient outpatient resources. Less severe disturbances outpatient therapy insurance better now paying for it but some concerns about third-party payers. Prevention community programs targeting at risk populations poverty, dangerous environments, positive psychology reslient (hardy) individuals.

    12. What Are Todays Leading Theories and Professions? One of the most important developments in the field of abnormal psychology has been the growth of numerous theoretical perspectives, including: Psychoanalytic Biological Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic-existential Sociocultural At present, no single perspective dominates the clinical field (although the majority of research is on cognitive-behavioral) We will focus on Psychoanalytic, biological, behavioral, cognitive and cognitive behavioral.We will focus on Psychoanalytic, biological, behavioral, cognitive and cognitive behavioral.

    13. What Do Clinical Researchers Do? The Case Study The Correlational Method The Experimental Method What Are the Limits of Clinical Investigations? Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Case study: infrequently occurring phenomena maybe not generalizable; correlational methods (observation, survey) relationships among variables directionality and 3rd variable problems; no causal statements; experimental method: cause/effect random sampling, IV, DV, control group, experimental group, random assignmentCase study: infrequently occurring phenomena maybe not generalizable; correlational methods (observation, survey) relationships among variables directionality and 3rd variable problems; no causal statements; experimental method: cause/effect random sampling, IV, DV, control group, experimental group, random assignment

    14. Research in Abnormal Psychology Clinical researchers face certain challenges that make their investigations particularly difficult: Measuring unconscious motives Assessing private thoughts Monitoring mood changes Calculating human potential Clinical researchers must consider the cultural backgrounds, races, and genders of the people they study They must always ensure that the rights of their research participants, both human and animal, are not violated

    15. Types of research Case studies Naturalistic Observation Survey Correlational techniques Experimentation Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1

    16. Correlation summary Correlation coefficient: Represented by r Ranges from -1.0 to + 1.0 Sign = direction of relationship + positive: both variables move in same direction - negative: variables move in opposite direction Number = strengths of relationship Closer to +/- 1, stronger relationship Closer to 0, weaker relationship 0, no relationship

    20. Some correlational research Epidemiological studies Reveal the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population Incidence = number of new cases in a given period Prevalence = total number of cases in a given period Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, Fifth Edition Chapter 1

    21. Alternative Experimental Designs Clinical researchers often must settle for designs that are less than ideal and include: Quasi-experimental designs Natural experiments Analogue experiments Single-subject experiments