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Exploration in Tudor Times. History Year 8. Sir Walter Raleigh. I am a very famous and important man!. The great Elizabethan Age of Exploration was at first dominated by the Portuguese and the Spanish.
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Exploration in Tudor Times History Year 8
Sir Walter Raleigh I am a very famous and important man!
The great Elizabethan Age of Exploration was at first dominated by the Portuguese and the Spanish. The Golden Age of Exploration also saw the emergence of English explorers such as Sir Francis Drake (1542-1596) and Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618).
Exploration • The Tudor Age of Exploration! • Many motives prompted the Age of exploration including • Scientific curiosity, • spirit of questioning, • the crusading spirit • the thought of spreading Christianity among heathen peoples. • And the opportunities to acquire wealth, fame and power. Which do you think might have been the greatest motivation?
Fame There were many Famous Explorers during 1400 - 1600
When Henry VIII came to power, England had only a small navy. During his reign Henry spent a great deal of money building up a large fleet to defend the kingdom.
Precious Materials • Life at sea was risky and dangerous, but it also offered, fame and riches. • From the end of the 15th century English sailors started on a series of daring and dangerous expeditions to claim new land from which they could import things such as cotton, spices*, silk and precious metals. * We will return to this after Christmas
What were Tudor ships called? The ships used in Tudor times were called galleons. These were very large ocean going ships, four times as long as they were wide. They had a special deck for cannons. They were broad, slow and not very manoeuvrable. ?
What did Tudor Sailors eat? • Tudor sailors spent many days out of sight of land and so had to take food with them that would last. • There was no fresh food. • They preserved food by drying, salting, smoking and pickling and they took food which kept naturally, like nuts. • Meat went rotten. • Food was often infested with worms and other creatures.
What was life on board a Tudor Ship like? • Life was very cramped living on Tudor ships and the sailors lived in these conditions for many months and sometimes even years. • The sailors often slept on the deck and had only the clothes they wore. • The ships were dirty and were infested with mice. • Many Tudor sailors caught a disease called scurvy which made their teeth fall out and gave them lots of sores.
Health and Life Onboard • At sea 16th century ships were hot beds for disease and infection brought about by the lack of proper sanitation, cramped sleeping conditions on hard decks • (hammocks were not introduced in English ships until 1596) • and constant wet and condensation.
The Mary Rose The Mary Rose was King Henry VIII's favourite warship. While heading for action in 1545, Mary Rose sank in the Solent, just off Portsmouth, with a tragic loss of life. Nine-one guns were found on board the ship. There were also 138 long bows and 3,500 arrows stowed on the ship
Elizabethan Times • The golden age of exploration began in the 15th century and lasted more than 200 years. During the reign of Elizabeth 1, many British sailors went in search of unknown lands. There were two main reasons: one was adventure and the other was money.
Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618) • Sir Walter Raleigh was born in 1554 and led many expeditions to America. It is said that he spread his cloak in front of Queen Elizabeth so that she did not have to stand in a puddle. There is no evidence to support this. • In 1592, Raleigh married one of Elizabeth's maids of honour without her permission and was briefly sent to the Tower of London.
Sir Francis Drake (1540-1596) • Sir Francis Drake was born in 1540 in Tavistock, Devon, England. He was the first Englishman to sail around the world between 1577 and 1580. As a sailor, adventurer, navigator, politician, engineer and landowner, he was as famous in his own lifetime as David Beckham is today. He was one of the most famous men in Elizabethan times.
Drake's successful battles against the Spanish helped England become a major sea power. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth l for his courage, and for the treasures he brought back with him. He brought back enough treasure to pay off the entire national debt. Among the treasures he brought back were tobacco and potatoes. He named Virginia in America after Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen.
The Spanish Armada • Philip II of Spain was angry that Queen Elizabeth had not punished Sir Francis Drake for plundering Spanish ships and got together a huge fleet of ships and sent it against the English.
Why is the 1588 battle with the Spanish Armada so famous? • The Armada is famous because at that time England was a small nation with a little navy and they were facing the greatest power in the world (Spain). They defeated Spain, with help from Mother Nature. It marked the beginning of England's mastery of the seas. The great history of the English navy began, as did serious English exploration and colonization.
In 1587 King Philip II of Spain drew up plans for war against Queen Elizabeth. A huge fleet, or armada of 130 ships was to sail up the English Channel to the Netherlands. It would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. Where they would land and invade England returning it to the Catholic religion.
The Armada left Lisbon in May 1588, but ran into a storm and lost supplies. The English fleet, led by Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake, attacked the Armada on 21 July near Plymouth. They tried to escape but knew they were trapped and decided to drop anchor near Calais harbour.
That night Drake and Howard sent eight fireships towards Calais harbour. The Spaniards were afraid and cut their anchor ropes and fled out to sea. When the battle began the Spaniards were already beginning to fall. The English destroyed four Spanish ships and damaged many more. The Spaniards were beaten but their only way home was to sail right round the north of Scotland and into the Atlantic Ocean. Just 60 ships made it back to Spain.
Right then Drake was a hero! But was that the whole story? For the next episode see next week!