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1000-1450

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1000-1450

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  1. 1000-1450 Review

  2. Dar al-Islam • Middle East, North Africa, Spain • Sub-Saharan Africa, India, Southeast Asia • Syncretic

  3. Umayyad Caliphate • Capital Damascus • Mawalis (non-Arab Muslims) pay taxes • Dhimmis (people of the Book) tolerated • Wealthy and powerful

  4. Abassid Caliphate • Capital Baghdad • Mawalis equal to Arab Muslims, no taxation • Dhimmis tolerated • Wealthy, cosmopolitan • High literary culture, preserved ancient culture • Trade and commerce encouraged, middlemen between Asia, Europe, Africa

  5. Travel over long distances possible: Ibn Battuta

  6. China and East Asia • Golden Age of China: Sui, Tang, Song Dynasties • Sui Dynasty: reunification after Three Kingdom Period. Buddhism dominant • Building projects like the Grand Canal raise taxes, cause peasant revolts

  7. Tang Dynasty • China at greatest territorial extent • Capital Changan • Center of trade (Silk Road) • Buddhism • Neo-Confucianism develops during later Tang as Emperors distrusted Buddhist power and wealth

  8. Empress Wu greatest Tang ruler • Tang conquered by invaders,

  9. Song Dynasty • Northern Song: capital Kaifeng • Southern Song; capital Hangzhou • Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism gradually gaining strength

  10. Population moves south • Tea, fish, rice • Population growth • Commercial Revolution • Proto-industrial • Neo-Confucianists oppose industrialization, foreign trade, support agriculture. China must not be dragged down by foreigners • Gunpowder, printing, equine collar harness

  11. Korea, Japan, East Asia • Chinese cultural influence: writing system, Buddhism, missionaries, merchants encourage cultural diffusion • Japan’s classical period: Heian Period • Buddhism, Chinese culture. Cultural copying • Capital: Kyoto

  12. Feudalism develops as Emperors lose power. • Shoguns (military rulers) dominate bakufu (tent governments. • Kamakura Shogunate defeated Mongol invasions • Ashikaga Shogunate

  13. Japanese feudalism less structured, formal than European feudalism of same period. • Similar hierarchical structure

  14. India • Center of manufacturing and trade • Indian Ocean trade: monsoons. • India “on the way to everywhere” • Improves imported crops, sends them to rest of world • Indian numerals, zero, cotton, spices

  15. Europe • Dark Ages • Church and Popes held enormous power • 800-1300 Medieval warm period • Equine collar harness • Population growth

  16. Charlemagne • Unifies most of Western Europe • Empire divided by his grandsons • Feudalism • Warfare

  17. Trade revives • Champagne region: crossroads, wise rulers, Jewish population • Flanders: wool, North Sea trade • Italy: Venice and Genoa link to rest of world

  18. Crusades • Religious wars • Europeans recognize they are backwards when exposed to Eastern culture • Little effect on Dar al-Islam

  19. Americas • Separate civilizations • Toltecs, Aztecs • Incas • Circumstantial evidence of contact

  20. Mongols • Chinggis Khan and sons/grandsons conquer most of Asia including China. • Opened trade routes • Religious toleration • Forbidden City of Beijing symbol of multicutural empire

  21. Dar al Islam destroyed, Ottoman Turks spread into Middle East • Russia conquered, ruled by Golden Horde, isolated from West • Black Death spreads to Europe over trade routes • Yuan Dynasty in China, foreign rulers hated by Chinese, Confucianists

  22. Calamitous 14th century • Little Ice Age • Conflict • Black Death • European development slowed down

  23. 1400s • Ming Voyages halted • Ottoman Turks “conquest over commerce” • European revival, new interest in outside world.