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600 - 1450. What were the major changes/developments from 600 – 1450?. 600 – 1450 Major Developments. Spread of Major Religions Rise of New World Religion - Islam Rise of Dar al-Islam Caliphates (Umayyad, Abbasid, Mamluk ) New and more regular Trade Systems Trans-Saharan Trade

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600 1450 major developments
600 – 1450 Major Developments
  • Spread of Major Religions
  • Rise of New World Religion - Islam
    • Rise of Dar al-Islam
    • Caliphates (Umayyad, Abbasid, Mamluk)
  • New and more regular Trade Systems
    • Trans-Saharan Trade
    • Indian Ocean Trade (Monsoons)
    • Silk Roads
  • Mongol Empire
  • Viking Explorations , Expansion, and Impact
  • Pandemics – 14th Century
continuities 600 1450
Continuities 600 - 1450
  • Classical cultures were maintained or revived
  • Slavery continued to be a major part of many social systems and continued to be a major type of labor system
  • There was no systematic change to social structures and political systems
    • Ex. Landlords remained dominant in most societies
    • Peasants continued to make up the bulk of the population
global processes 600 1450
Global Processes 600-1450
  • Silk Road
  • Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
  • Indian Ocean Trade Routes
  • Muslim Caliphates
  • Mongol Empire
  • Bubonic Plague
major civilizations 600 1450
Major Civilizations 600 - 1450
  • East Asia: Tang, Song, Ming
  • South Asia: Delhi Sultanate
  • Southeast Asia: Vietnam
  • The Americas: Maya, Aztec, Inca
  • West Africa (Sudan): Ghana, Mali, Songhay
  • Swahili City-States
slide12
632
  • Rise of Islam
slide14
732
  • Battle of Tours (end of Muslim move into France)
slide16
1054
  • 1st Schism in Christian Church
slide18
1066
  • Norman conquest of England
slide20
1071
  • Battle of Manzikert (Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines)
slide22
1095
  • 1st Crusade
slide24
1258
  • Mongols sack Baghdad
1271 12951
1271-1295
  • Marco Polo Travels
slide28
1324
  • Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage
1325 13491
1325 - 1349
  • Travels of Ibn Battuta
1347 13481
1347 - 1348
  • Bubonic plague in Europe
slide34
1433
  • End of Zheng He’s voyages
  • Rise of Ottomans
slide40

The 4th caliph

  • the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
  • Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi'a for not punishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman
slide42

Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands;

  • defeated the kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia.
  • Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula
  • eventually converted to Christianity
slide46

(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman;

  • the Islamic army was defeated
  • The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
slide48

Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire

  • retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek
  • capital at Constantinople
slide52

AKA Charles the "Hammer";

  • led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
slide54

(Formulated 14th century) Way of the Warrior for Japanese samurais

  • defined service and conduct appropriate to their status
slide56

series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims

  • temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms
slide58

Social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages

  • associated with ideals of knightly virtues, honor and of courtly love
  • came to known as gentlemanly conduct.
slide70

obligatory religious duties of all Muslims:

    • confession of faith
    • prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca)
    • fasting during Ramadan
    • zakat (tax for charity)
    • hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
slide72

(1170s – 1227) from 1206 leader of all Mongol tribes

  • responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions
slide74

one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan’s death

  • territory covered much of present south-central Russia
slide78

organization of cities in Northern Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance

slide80

any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position

  • beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
slide82

a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)

slide86

(1337 – 1453) conflict between England and France

  • fought over lands England possessed in France
  • issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of nation-states
slide88

Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create an empire incorporating various Andean cultures

  • Term also used for leader of empire
slide90

An investigation

  • A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy
slide92

Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula

  • literally meaning submission
  • based on the prophecy of Muhammad
slide96

Grandson of Ghengis Khan

  • commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China
  • became Khan in 1260
  • established Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
slide98

An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 BCE

  • conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
slide100

Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215

  • confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims
  • represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
slide102

Country of western Africa

  • During the Middle Ages it formed a huge territorial empire
  • noted as a center of Islamic study and as a trade route for gold
  • Its center was Timbuktu
slide104

African King who made pilgrimage to Mecca

  • He gave out so much gold, that the value of gold dropped rapidly
slide108

Religious Center of Islam

  • where Muslims pray toward
slide112

the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica

  • gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus
slide114

The prophet of Islam

  • born in 570 in clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca
slide118

military government in 12th century Japan…

  • established by the Minamoto
  • retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai
slide122

In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy

  • in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478
  • the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown
  • the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible for burning about 2,000 heretics at the stake
slide124

mystics within Islam

  • responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
slide128

dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 C.E.

  • more stable than the previous dynasty
slide130

center of Aztec power

  • founded on marshy island in Lake Texacoco
slide134

an Arabic word meaning “striving in the way of God”

  • but it is often translated as “holy war”
  • Refers to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
slide136

Nomadic Arabs who originally inhabited desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa and later began to move to other parts of the region

slide138

The Medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb

  • They captured Spain in 700s and were expelled from Spain in 1492
slide142

It is a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul

  • built as a Christian church by Justinian
  • converted to a mosque in 1453
  • made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
slide144

It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries

slide146

A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further

  • Most familiar numeral style (1,2,3, etc.,) used on clock and watch dials
slide150

A tower attached to a mosque

  • used for call to prayer
slide154

A style of European architecture prevalent from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, with round arches and barrel vaults influenced by Roman architecture and characterized by heavy stone construction

slide158

Religion of early Japanese culture;

  • devotees worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world
  • offers of food and prayer made to gods and nature spirits
slide160

The Way of Changes, a Chinese classic written by Lao Tzu around the 3rd century BC It is the fundamental text of Taoism

slide168

The Christian church characterized by an Episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head

  • belief in seven sacraments and the authority of tradition
slide172

winds from the southwest or south that brings heavy rainfall to southern Asia in the summer

  • method by which Arab merchants travelled
slide180

Arab scholar and traveler

  • Known for his accounts of his travels
  • Traveled for almost 30 years all over the Islamic world and beyond (North Africa, west Africa, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Middle East, India, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China)
slide186

1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty

  • Period of Kublai Kahn and the Mongols dominance over China
slide188

the language of the Inca empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands from southern Colombia to Chile

slide190

attempt to merge different traditions or practices and combine them with another tradition (applies also to religions)

slide192

What China called itself

  • Idea of ethnocentrism by the Chinese
slide194

West African poet, praise singer and wandering musician

  • considered a repository of oral tradition
slide196

a small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century

slide206

A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information

  • used especially for accounting purposes
slide212

A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries;

  • characterized by slender vertical piers, counterbalancing buttresses and vaulting and pointed arches
slide214

Western European trade associations

  • grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups
slide216

Where farming occurs in one place repeatedly

  • As opposed to shifting cultivation
slide218

“Lion prince”

  • member of the Keita clan
  • created a unified state that became the Mali Empire
  • died in 1260
slide220

Organization of rural economy and society by three classes of land: a lord’s own land, serf holdings and free peasant land

slide226

Popular artistic style in China during the Tang-Song era.

  • Previously popular Buddhist themes are pushed away by the new scholar-gentry classes interested in nature’s beauty
slide228

invented in China in the mid-eleventh century

  • Individual characters made of fired clay
  • were assembled and glued onto a plate to create a printing block
  • Introduced in Europe in the 15th century
slide232

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses and bamboo fenders

  • Played major roles in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula