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Unit 4: Ancient Greece. Geography. Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another. The SEA provides T ravel to other places T rade with others (Greece has poor resources) F ood. The LAND creates

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  • Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs
  • It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another
The SEA provides
    • Travel to other places
    • Trade with others (Greece has poor resources)
    • Food
The LAND creates
    • Division from mountains
    • Differences because of division
    • Disunity because of differences
The CLIMATE allows
    • Outdoor public meetings
early greeks
Early Greeks
  • Mycenaeans took power around 2000 B.C.
  • Trojan War – a war around 1200 BC in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy
    • Troy is a Greek legend – is it true or false?
  • Mycenaean power declines after this
greek culture declines
Greek Culture Declines
  • Mycenaeans lose power
  • Dorians take control
    • Dorians are stupid
      • Economy collapses
      • Trade declines
      • People even forget how to write!
      • It’s the Dark Ages for Greece
key terms
Key Terms
  • Polis – Greek City-State
  • Acropolis– Fortified hilltop in Greek City-states where people met
  • Monarchy - Government in the hands of a single ruler, usually a king
Aristocracy – Government in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
  • Oligarchy – Government in the hands of a few wealthy people
Phalanx- A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
  • Peloponnesian War – a war between 431 and 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
  • Government
    • Assembly of all free adult males
    • Council of Elders
    • Ephors (judges)
    • Kings (Military)
  • Social Structures
    • Citizens
    • Free Non-citizens (Foreigners and women)
    • Helots (indentured Servants)
    • Slaves
    • Women had many rights, but could not vote
  • Education
    • Hard military training from age 7 for boys
    • Girls and boys learned to read and write
    • Little further academic training
  • Arts
    • None!
    • Duty, Strength and discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom
  • Government
    • Democracy – Rule by people
    • Council of Five Hundred (proposed laws)
    • Free adult males are citizens and participate in government
  • Social Structures
    • Citizens
    • Foreigners and Women
    • Slaves (1/3 of all population)
    • Women, foreigners and slaves had few rights
  • Education
    • None for girls
    • Boys highly educated
    • Higher education available for wealthy
  • Arts
    • Philosophy
    • Literature
    • Poetry
    • Sculpture
    • Theater
    • Arts were very important and taught to all boys
persian wars 480 b c
Persian Wars480 B.C.
  • Greece vs. Persia
    • Marathon
    • Thermopylae (“300”)
    • Salamis
    • Plataea
  • Greeks win
peloponnesian war 431 b c 404 b c
Peloponnesian War431 B.C. – 404 B.C.
  • Athens (navy) Vs. Sparta (Army)
  • Sparta Wins
spartans vs athenians
Spartans vs. Athenians!
  • The PELOPONNESIAN WAR – a war between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C.E. to 404 B.C.E. in which Sparta won had many effects on the city-states.
  • Sparta had land advantage/Athens naval
  • Plague hurts Athens – Pericles dies
  • Athens loses; democracy weakens
the golden age
The Golden Age
  • Athens went through a G.A. after the Persian Wars (480 – 430 B.C.E.)
  • During Athens’ G.A., drama, architecture, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, and science reached new heights.
pericles 494 429 b c e
Pericles (494-429 B.C.E.)
  • PERICLES – A wise and able Athenian politician – led Athens for 32 years during its G.A.
  • He had 3 goals:
    • To strengthen Athenian democracy
    • To hold and strengthen the empire
    • To glorify Athens
pericles goal 1 democracy
Pericles’ Goal #1 - Democracy
  • Pericles increased # of paid public officials
  • Introduced DIRECT DEMOCRACY – a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
pericles goal 2 empire
Pericles’ Goal #2 - Empire
  • Pericles strengthened the navy
  • Made it the most powerful in the Mediterranean
pericles goal 3 glorify
Pericles’ Goal #3 - Glorify
  • He made Athens pretty! 
  • Parthenon
  • Arts
    • Sculpture
    • Drama
  • Philosophers searched for truth during these uncertain times
  • Socrates – philosopher (469-399 B.C.E.)
  • Plato – philosopher (427-347 B.C.E.)
  • Aristotle – philosopher (384-322 B.C.E.)
  • Blind Greek author/storyteller
  • Composed epics – narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds
    • The Iliad
    • The Odyssey
philip builds macedonia s power
Philip Builds Macedonia’s Power
  • The Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states
  • In the north, Philip prepared Macedonia to invade
Philip transformed peasants into a professional army
  • Used a heavy 16x16 phalanx formation
  • Greek city states could not unite against Philip until it was too late…
The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) ended Greek freedom and independence
  • Philip was murdered (336 BC)
  • Never got to invade Persia
alexander defeats persia
Alexander Defeats Persia
  • 20-year-old Alexander takes Macedonia over after his father dies
  • Alexander was already a great leader
    • Education (Aristotle)
    • Inspiration (Illiad)
    • Military (Chaeronea, Thebes)
With Greece under his control, he turns to Persia
  • Alexander wins two important battles against Darius III
  • Darius offers Alexander 1/3 the Persian Empire, but Alexander refuses
The final victory comes at Gaugamela
  • Alexander’s phalanx vs. Persian chariots with scythes
  • Alexander’s victory ends Persian control
  • His army takes advantage of the empire’s massive wealth
alexander s other conquests
Alexander’s Other Conquests
  • Alexander continued conquests in India and SW Asia over the next years
  • His soldiers marched >11,000 miles in 11 years
  • Finally head back in 323 BC
alexander s legacy
Alexander’s Legacy
  • Alexander died of fever when he returned
  • Who would control the huge empire?
  • 3 general divided it and ruled with absolute power
  • Alexander’s rule ended the freedom of Greek city-states and created a new culture
hellenistic culture
Hellenistic Culture
  • After Alexander’s death, a blended culture called HELLENISTIC – A MIX OF GREEK, EGYPTIAN, AND EASTERN CULTURES – started.
  • Alexandria in Egypt became the center of the Hellenistic world
  • It was an international port city full of trade and commerce
Alexandria was magnificent
    • Palaces
    • Statues
    • Lighthouse
    • Museum
    • Library
hellenistic science technology
Hellenistic Science & Technology
  • Scientists in Alexandria studied Astronomy
    • Earth center of universe
    • Earth’s size (accurate)
  • Euclid creates a geometry text used the next 2000 years
  • Archimedes establishes pi (3.14)
hellenistic philosophy art
Hellenistic Philosophy & Art
  • Stoicism and Epicureanism
  • Sculpture flourishes
  • Hellenistic sculpture focuses on more natural forms than the Greeks