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The Genetics of Synesthesia and Absolute Pitch

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  1. The Genetics of Synesthesia and Absolute Pitch Taryn Wassmer

  2. Synesthesia http://bnee.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/09/synesthesia.jpg Fig. A: a pictorial representation of color-grapheme synesthesia

  3. Stroop Test http://cytowic.net/Synesthesia/Synesth__Encyclo_/a_Fig07-400.jpg Fig. B: displays an example of a typical Stroop Test used in testing of digit-color synesthetes

  4. Absolute Pitch Fig. C: Planum Temporale asymmetry in musicians with absolute pitch http://musicianbrain.com/papers/Keenan_AP_2001.pdf

  5. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch http://www.stlr.org/html/Staff_archive/KoopsSchellekens/Source_List+SourceUpload+3+0/Source_083B.pdf

  6. Estimation of the Genetic Component of Absolute Pitch http://ukpmc.ac.uk/picrender.cgi?artid=532564&blobtype=pdf

  7. Whole Genome Scan of Synesthesia http://www.autismresearchcentre.com/docs/papers/2009_Asher_etal_Synaesthesia_Linkage_Study_AJHG.pdf Fig. D: Pedigrees of families with male to male transmission of synesthesia (hatched represents unknown phenotype, asterisks represent individuals from whom DNA was obtained)

  8. Bibliography • Asher, Julian; Lamb, Janine; Brocklebank, Denise; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Maestrini, Elena; Addis, Laura; Sen, Mallika; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Monaco, Anthony. “A Whole-Genome Scan and Fine-Mapping Linkage Study of Auditory-Visual Synesthesisa Reveals Evidence of Linkage to Chromosomes 2q24, 5q33, 6p12, and 12p12.” The American Journal of Human Genetics. February 13 2009: vol. 84: pg. 279-285. • Athos, E; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemanzky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane. “Dichotomy and Perceptual Distortions in Absolute Pitch Ability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sept. 11, 2007: vol. 104: pg. 14795-14800. • Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan; Risch, Neil; Gitshier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson. “Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch.” American Journal of Human Genetics. 2000: vol. 67: pg. 755-758. • Gregersen, Peter; Kowalsky, Elena; Kohn, Nina; Marvin, Elizabeth. “Absolute Pitch: Prevalence, Ethnic Variation, and Estimation of Genetic Component.” American Journal of Human Genetics. 1999: vol. 65: pg. 911-913. • Grossenbacher, Peter; Lovelace, Christopher. “Mechanisms of Synesthesia: Cognitive and Physiological Constraints.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2001: vol. 5: pg. 36-41. • Kubista, Mikael; Andrade, Jose; Bengtsson, Martin; Forootan, Amin; Jonak, Jiri; Lind, Kristina; Sindelka, Radek; Sjoback, Robert; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Strombom, Linda; Stahlberg, Anders; Zoric, Neven. “The Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2006: vol. 25: pg. 95-125. • Laeng, Bruno; Svartdal, Frode; Oelmann, Hella. “Does Color Synesthesia Pose a Paradox for Early-Selection Theories of Attention?” Psychological Science. 2004: vol. 15: pg. 277-281. • Rouw, Romke; Scholte, H. “Increased Structural Connectivity in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia.” Nature Neuroscience. 2007: vol. 10: pg. 1-6. • Smilek, D.; Moffat, B.; Pasternak, J.; White, B.; Dixon, M.; Merikle, P. “Synaesthesia: A Case Study of Discordant Monozygotic Twins.” Neurocase. 2002: vol. 8: pg. 338-342. • Syvanen, Ann-Christine. “Assessing Genetic Variation: Genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.” Nature. Vol. 2: Dec. 2001: pg. 930-942.