Mini-Submarine - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Mini-Submarine Randy Draeger Grant Stockton David Upp

  2. Problem Statement • As High School students, we have not fully investigated or applied the concepts and applications of electronics, fluid dynamics, energy systems, mechanical systems, calculus and physics in the construction and use of submersible technologies • Mathematic and physics equations were the basis of the submarine design • Combined a lot of units of study in tech class with physics principles • Realistic goal, and submersibles have a place in the modern world

  3. Group Devlopment • Randy – Leader due to personal experiences and strong will for the completion of the project • Grant – Scribe due to neat hand writing and attention to detail • David – Time Keeper due to his past experiences with engineering and his ability to accurately a lot time for each task

  4. Background • First submarine made by Dutch. Used oars underwater for propulsion • First military submarine was produced by an American • Nicknamed Turtle • Failed during trial run in the civil war • Consequently submarine projects were abandoned until the 20th century • Modified with internal combustion engines, newer ballast control systems, silent propulsion systems, a nuclear missiles

  5. Customer • Mr. Pritchard – ITC instructor and will serve as our supervisor • Ms. Brandner – AP Calculus BC instructor and will serve as our mathematical and physics expert

  6. Project Scope • Research, design and build submersible • Deliverables: • Submarine • Final Report • Final PowerPoint Presentation • Consult Experts: • Teachers • Hobby Experts • Hardware Experts • Less than $400

  7. Research • How does a submarine work? • What materials are submersibles made out of? • How do RC components work underwater? • Ballast Systems • Hull Design • Propulsion Systems

  8. How does a submarine work?

  9. How does a submarine work?

  10. Archimedes’ Principle • The force of buoyancy directly correlates the volume of the object • As volume increases, so does the buoyant force • As volume decreases, the buoyant force decreases

  11. Free Force Body Diagram • The force of weight is combating the force of buoyancy • Recall as the volume of the object decreases, so does the buoyant force • This allows the force of weight to take a more pronounced effect in bringing the submarine down underwater • When the volume increases, buoyancy becomes stronger, forcing the object towards the surface

  12. How is neutral buoyancy obtained? • When the density of the object as a whole equals the density of the fluid, neutral buoyancy is obtained

  13. Ballast Systems • Gas vs. Piston

  14. Hull Design • Wet vs. Dry Hull • PVC is optimal because it is a polymer / composite with a density near 1 and rather strong

  15. Propulsion • Propellers attached to waterproof motor • Ranking characteristics for power • Angular frequency • Slant length • Length of blade • Number of blades

  16. RC Components • Water disrupts radio waves • AM frequency will go down to 20 feet good reception • FM frequency stops at 5 feet • RC frequencies stop around 4 feet underwater • Possibility of extending the receiver wire to the surface in tether cord

  17. Criteria • Must function underwater • Waterproof • Electronic components are protected (safety) • Movement with 3 degrees of Freedom • Ballast System • Maintain Neutral Buoyancy [still and motion] • Diving range 5-10 ft. • Video Feed (optional) • Lighting (optional)

  18. Constraints • Limited weight due to buoyancy • Limited Budgets ($400) • Materials must withstand underwater pressure • All materials must run off the same power source with the voltage drop • Depth is limited to tether line

  19. Explore Possibilities • Submarine vs. ROV • Wet vs. Dry Hull • Piston vs. Gas • Remote Control vs. Tether

  20. Randy’s Design

  21. David’s Design

  22. Grant’s design

  23. Select an approach

  24. Mathematical Based Design • The ballast tanks must be large enough to change the volume of water displaced to the point that the submarine will sink • Based on our list of materials,

  25. Initial Design • Saddle Ballast Tank Design • Wanted to keep ballast tanks away from the center hull to keep electronics dry • Middle tube is dry • 2 outside tubes are the ballast tanks • Gas powered ballast • Solenoid Valves release air

  26. Prototyping • Everything was cut • Then all the pieces were assembled • Divide and Conquer • Took 1 ½ months for first prototype

  27. Safety Glasses In the navy

  28. TEST plan 1 (specs) • Purpose • Keep submarine within constraints • Procedure • Measure dimensions • Expected results • Fit with 2x2x3 • Results • Fits within dimensions

  29. Test Plan 2 (Propelled buoyancy) • Purpose • Ensure buoyancy system is operational during motion • Procedure • Attain neutral buoyancy • Move with obstacle (cage) • Expected results • Pass with obstacle • Results • Never attained stationary bouyancy

  30. Test Plan (3 Degrees of freedom) • Purpose • Verify that submarine moves on all 3 axis • Procedure • submerge • Move through obstacle • turn • Back through obstacle • Expected results • Proper navigation through the obstacle course • Results • Never attained stationary bouyancy

  31. Test plan 4 (video feed) • Purpose • Check webcam is providing input • Procedure • Plug in webcam • Use geometric shapes to verify input • Expected results • Webcam provides input • Results • Webcam was water damaged

  32. Test plan 5 (Water proof) • Purpose • Procedure • Expected results • Results

  33. Waterproof problems • Problems • Epoxy and silicon sealant • Fiber glass casing • Re-fitting

  34. Test plan 6 ( Stationary Neutral buoyancy) • Purpose • Verify buoyancy while not moving • Procedure • Attain neutral buoyancy • Measure time at neutrally buoyant • Expected results • Prototype attains neutral buoyancy • Results • Never attained neutral bouyancy

  35. Test photos

  36. Test conclusions • Waterproofing • Buoyancy Issues • Further Refinements

  37. Refining • Waterproofing • Center of Buoyancy • Added Weight to Adjust • Water Inertia • Web Cam view • Tether Tension • Top Cap Screw • Outer Body • Fiber glass Shell

  38. Future refinements • Trim tanks • Different Canisters • Propeller Placment

  39. Lessons Learned (Randy) • Unforeseen Problems • Construction • Importance of calculations

  40. Lessons Learned (Grant) • Water Vs. Grant

  41. Lessons Learned (David) • Water is a challenge • Importance of physics concepts

  42. Summary