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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age. Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age. Prejudice Based on Gender-Based Stereotypes Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Prejudice Ageism.

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psychology of prejudice and discrimination

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Prejudice Based on

Gender-Based Stereotypes

Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Prejudice

Ageism

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age1

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Based Stereotypes

American culture has established set of beliefs men and women, traits and roles

Gender belief system

Content of this belief system is conveyed through

media

Parents and peers influences

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age2

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Based Stereotypes

American culture has established set of beliefs men and women, traits and roles

Gender belief system

Content of this belief system is conveyed through

media

Parents and peers influences

slide5

Gender Belief System

Learning about gender begins early in life and continues throughout the life span

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age3

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System encompasses

Stereotype content

Attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and men

Perceptions of those who violate gender-based expectations

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age4

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System—Stereotypes

Males Traits

Clusters of Component—agentic or instrumental

Independent

Strong

Self-confident

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age5

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System—Stereotypes

Females Traits

Clusters of Component—communal or expressive

Warmth—expressiveness

emotional

helpful

kind

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age6

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-associated Belief

Multidimensional—encompassing ideas about women’s and men’s

physical characteristic

role

cognitive abilities

emotions

traits

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age7

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System

Ideas about appropriate emotions for the sexes

Women experience and express more emotions than men

Men experience and express anger and pride

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age8

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System

Gender polarization—gender-associated characteristics are bipolar, people believe what is masculine is not feminine and that what is feminine is not masculine

Influences assumptions about an individual’s sexual orientation

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age9

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System

Evaluative dimension of attitudes towards social groups

Women are wonderful effect

Research shows that people associated with social categories women and men actually shows a bias in favor of women

Implicit attitudes toward women and men in the use of language

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age10

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-Belief System

Evaluative dimension of attitudes towards social groups

Discrimination-affection paradox

Discrimination women face is more subtle, than with men

Subtypes of Women and Men

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age11

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-related categorization

Subtypes—categories that are subordinate to the more basic categories of sex, race, and age

Major subtypes can be grouped in to categories such as

Occupation

Family roles

Physical features,

sexuality

macho man

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age12

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Gender-related categorization

Attitudes toward women’s rights and responsibility—has been positive as a social group

Attitudes towards subtypes of women in nontraditional roles

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age13

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Hostile and Benevolent Sexism

Dimensions of modern sexism

Hostile

Benevolent

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age14

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Women in Leadership Roles

Role congruity theory

Less likely to succeed in leadership roles

Social role theory

Women are communal/no agentic traits

Higher probability of negative evaluations

Violates what women leaders should be like

Women in faculty roles

Women's chances of success

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age15

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Prejudice

Stereotypes of Lesbians and Gay men

Sexual orientation hypothesis

Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay men

Sex Differences in anti-gay prejudice

Attitudes toward bisexuals

Civil rights attitudes

Heterosexism in the Workplace

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age16

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Ageism

When does old age begin

Beliefs about older adults

Double standard of aging

Subtypes of older adults

Forgetfulness stereotype

Age-Based Discrimination

Workplace discrimination

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age17

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

The cluster of traits that represent stereotypes of men is called

agentic.

communal.

expressive.

benevolent.

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age18

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

The cluster of traits that represent stereotypes of men is called

agentic. (p. 346 )

communal.

expressive.

benevolent.

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age19

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Which emotion is more strongly associated with men than with women?

a) guilt

b) sadness

c) pride

d) fear

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age20

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Which emotion is more strongly associated with men than with women?

a) guilt

b) sadness

c) pride (p. 348)

d) fear

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age21

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Research on the accuracy of gender stereotypes shows that

they can be correctly applied at both the individual and the group level.

there is no overlap between the characteristics men and women used to describe themselves.

at the group level, people are fairly accurate observers of women’s and men’s actual characteristics.

stereotypes usually lead to discrimination against women and men.

prejudice based on gender sexual orientation and age22

Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

Research on the accuracy of gender stereotypes shows that

they can be correctly applied at both the individual and the group level.

there is no overlap between the characteristics men and women used to describe themselves.

at the group level, people are fairly accurate observers of women’s and men’s actual characteristics. (p.350)

stereotypes usually lead to discrimination against women and men.