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    1. Prejudice and Discrimination: Theoretical Explanations

    2. Scientific Racism The endeavor to prove a racial groups superiority over other racial groups Ex. Whites more intelligent than blacks Ex. Discrimination against Aboriginal groups

    3. Psychodynamic Theory Answered why prejudice and discrimination exist when it is unnatural and unjustifiable Proposes that prejudice is motivationally based and serves to strengthen personal identity, also used as a defense mechanism. Real life ex: Two straight men acting rudely towards homosexual men to pre-emptively defend themselves from unwanted advances.

    4. Sociocultural Theory Culture provides stereotypes Stereotype patterns are linked to prejudice and discriminatory behaviours Situation: Passing of Amendment 2, Prop 8, etc. Stereotype (prejudice): Homosexuals are unnatural, dont fit social norms of typical American family unit Discrimination: They dont deserve the same marriage rights or rights to adopt children as straight people.

    5. Evolutionary Theory Evolve suspicion and fear of strangers Explains the nature of humans to want to pass on ones genes Kin favoritism- cooperation with family and ones own social group to ensure survival Extended favoritism- cooperation with outside groups to increase survival level. Ethnocentrism- favoritism to ones group and culture Criteria for favoritism- Physical similarity Proximity Ethnicity Theory does not explain the lack of prejudice in other cultures Evolving a sense of morality to encourage cooperation, supporting interdependent relationships.

    6. Social Identity Theory and Intergroup Relations Social Identity: In any situation, one can choose his or her self identity or group identity. Intergroup relations: Competition naturally arises between different groups because each group wants to be more important than the other. Example: When a person joins a gang, that person is forgoing his or her self identity for the group identity in order to be accepted. This person will develop the prejudice and discrimination that the gang already has towards other groups or gangs.

    7. Schema Theory and Social Cognition Cognitive theory- a theory that uses external (rewards, punishments), internal (beliefs, expectations), and past behavior as factors to explain new behavior Schema theory uses stereotypes to deal with information processing to simplify subjects Example: an Asian classmate sits next to you at lunch, your schema is that Asians are academic and therefore boring, because of past behavior or beliefs you decide to not be rude and start to talk to them. Through this experience you gain a new friend and change your expectations on new behavior. You become more likely to stereotype Asians differently and be more open to Asians

    8. Realistic Conflict Theory Realistic conflict theory(sherif,levine,campell) Conflict creates hostility and increases group loyalty Competition is the root of all prejudice Example: winter park verses edgewater. Competition to be the better school in sports and in general creates hostilty. Winter park students call edgewater "dirty water" and edgewater students call winter park "pussy cats".

    9. Authoritarian Personality Theory McDonalds case People went along with it because the followers are supposed to obey Perform discrimination prejudice Police called and told McDonalds manager that they had a employee that was a suspect for shoplifting Described girl that was working Police on phone orders them to strip search girl and make her do jumping jacks and perform sexual acts on the man. People simply listened because people want to obey authority. They did not question the fact whether the policeman was really a policeman or not. Parents and societies that raise children to be strict rule followers instill an authoritarian personality who values law, respects authority absolutely, and despises those who do otherwise.

    10. Social Learning Theory In a given situation, people act the way they do because they observe other people doing so and decide to act the same way because they think that the others are probably more knowledgeable or because it appears to be the social norm. Someone is attending a college football game for the first time. They see that the people around them are jeering at fans of the other team that get too close so decide to jeer as well.

    11. Scapegoat theory Blaming others for causing the problem when going through a rough situation. Iraqis are discriminated against in America. The group as a whole is blamed for the problems of today war, terrorist attacks, etc.

    12. Cognitive Dissonance Theory When faced with a discrepancy between our thoughts and actions, we change our thoughts to justify our actions that have already been committed. People are mean to Blacks, they feel bad because they arent naturally mean people. They justify their beliefs by telling themselves that Blacks are bad take jobs, did something bad to a friend