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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

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  1. Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Prepared by S. Saterfield, Whitley& Kite, (2006) The Psychogy of Prejudice and Discrimination

  2. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Research suggest that prejudice continues to be alive and well in the United States, however only in a subtle rather than overt form. What evidence support this statement?

  3. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice 2001 Gallup poll: 64% White respondents –very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with way Blacks treated in society. 64% White respondents—replied the same when asked about Hispanics. Implications of research is that prejudice has decreased.

  4. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice • Others Studies indicate that stereotypes become less negative over time. • Several studies indicate changes in attitudes of the general population, for example • Beliefs about the social roles of women has become less stereotyped between 1970 and 1995 • Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men had become less negative between 1973 and 1996. • But is America Truly becoming less prejudiced?.

  5. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • Bogus Pipeline Research: • Assessment of behavior also indicate that prejudice continues. • 64% White • 39% Blacks • 45% Hispanics • Respondents said they were satisfied with the way Blacks and Hispanics were treated as indicated in a Gallup Poll

  6. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of Prejudice Is prejudice in this country becoming more indirect and subtle compared to the overt and blatant prejudice of the past? Can positive stereotypes as well as negative stereotype reflect a prejudiced mind-set? EEOC report

  7. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Bogus Pipeline Research: participants answered questions while their physiological responses are measured by what they believe to be an effective lie detector Physiological and implicit cognition measures of prejudice: self-reported data indicate low levels of prejudice nonetheless exhibiting physiological responses indicating negative emotions Day-to-day experience of women and members of minority groups

  8. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Women and African Americans Reporting Observed Sexist or Racist Behavior -2 week

  9. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Why is there a contradiction between people’s non-prejudiced responses to questions about race, gender, and sexual orientation and their prejudiced everyday behavior?

  10. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • But Only Bad People Are Prejudiced....... • Two social issues- • Change in American racial attitudes since World War II • Jim Crow Racism

  11. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Affect of world events on American racial attitudes Before World War II prejudice by the dominate group against members of other groups was the social norm. Refer to as JIM CROW RACISM

  12. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • JIM CROW RACISM • Whites were inherently superior to other • races • Keeping members of minority groups at a • distance through racial segregation (More) • Use of laws and power of government to establish racial segregated school system and other forms of discrimination (examples of Jim Crow Laws) • Restriction of voting rights California had more Jim Crow laws enacted then any other state.

  13. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • WORLD WAR II • Beginning of change in racial beliefs • and attitudes • U.S. government portrayed Nazi • racist as dangerous and un-American • U.S. proclamation of Nazi racism lead to a look at paradoxes in our own society • American values changed to racial prejudice was no longer acceptable

  14. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • WORLD WAR II • Within the two decades following WW II legislation was proposed • Desegregating armed forces • Voting rights act passed • Equal employment opportunity

  15. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Anti-communist Cold War How could the U.S. criticize communist for violating civil liberties of their citizens while not granting full equality to all U.S. citizens. Racial equality established as a social norm in 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v, Board of education Made segregated schools illegal

  16. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Implicit prejudice Negative stereotypes still exist and are absorbed in the negative emotions associated with those stereotypes Individuals are not aware of having them Effect people’s emotional responses to and behavior towards minority groups

  17. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice • Implicit prejudice • Prejudices that can be assess through implicit cognition and some behavioral measures which people are not aware of having. • Learned through socialization • The nature of prejudice has changed from being “hot, close and direct” to being more “cool, distant and indirect”.

  18. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTransformation of Prejudice Racism changed from being normal to being bad and racist began to be seen as bad people. Can behaviors change from a cultural legacy of 400 years of racism in only a few decades?

  19. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTheories of Contemporary Prejudice • Three Propositions: • Genuine change in American’s social norms since WW II, belief in the principle of equality for all people • Not everyone has accepted this norm to the same degree • Even those people who have not yet fully accepted the norm are motivated to act in non-prejudiced ways

  20. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTheories of Contemporary Prejudice • Dominant social groups who hold contemporary prejudices express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced grounds. • Employ psychological defense mechanism to rationalize and justify their prejudice behavior.

  21. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTheories of Contemporary Prejudice People will express those prejudices in ways that can be justified on unprejudiced grounds People will have a genuine acceptance of the principle of equality and rejection of traditional prejudice with effects of old-fashioned prejudices that has been learned while growing up.

  22. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceTheories of Contemporary Prejudice • Four Theories of Contemporary Prejudice • Modern-Symbolic Prejudice • Subtle Prejudice • Aversive Prejudice • Racial Ambivalence

  23. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice Symbolic racism:a set of beliefs about Black people as an abstract group (anonymous they—”If they would only...) rather than as an individuals. Can be applied to any minority social group. Beliefs are expressed behaviorally as ACTS that are justified on a nonracial basis but that operate to maintain the racial status quo Which leads to discrimination

  24. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice • Old-fashioned Racism: • Based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypes • Low intelligence • Laziness • Exclusion from certain jobs and segregated housing and social clubs: • Legalized, formal discrimination in the form of racially separated schools and denial of voting rights

  25. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice Difference between old-fashioned and contemporize racism— -old fashioned is based on belief in the biological inferiority of Black people and the attendant stereotypes of low intelligence. -symbolic racism is not link directly to race, linked indirectly to race through political and social issues. Most members of the dominant social group do not see symbolic racist beliefs as prejudice

  26. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice Symbolic racism was changed to modern racism to emphasize the contemporary, post civil-rights–movement new ideology or belief systems Some researchers have give this new contemporary form of prejudice a different name: racial resentment and laissez-faire racism

  27. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice • Characteristics of Modern-Symbolic prejudice- • Racial prejudice and discrimination no longer exist • Black-white differences in economic outcomes result from Black people’s lack of motivation to work hard enough to get what they want • Black people are unwilling to work to get what they want, their continuing anger over inequality is unjustified • Rather than working for the ahead, Black people seek special favors • Relative to White people, Black people have been getting more than they deserve economically. • -\

  28. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice • Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice • Socialization (learning from childhood) • Egalitarianism—(value system based in belief that all people are equal and should be treated identically) two meanings • Equality of opportunity • Equality of outcome • Relative deprivation • Self- interest

  29. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice • Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice • Socialization • Egalitarianism—term has two meanings • Equality of opportunity • Equality of outcome • Relative deprivations • Self- interest • Relative deprivation

  30. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice • Psychological Bases for Modern-Symbolic Prejudice • Socialization • Egalitarianism—term has two meanings • Equality of opportunity • Equality of outcome • Self- interest • Relative deprivation • Little personal knowledge of people who are different

  31. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceModern-Symbolic Prejudice ---> ----> ---->

  32. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceSubtle Prejudice Strongly endorse the traditional values of dominant social group’s cultures Exaggeration of cultural differences as a component of subtle prejudice See differences between majority and minority cultures as greater than they really are. Leads to the belief that minority group memers could never adopt or coexist with the majority culture.

  33. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice • Attitudes of a person who tries to..... • ignore the existence of Black people or people of color, • tires to avoid contact with tem , • and at most to be polite, correct, and cold whatever dealings are necessary between the races

  34. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice • Characteristics of Aversive Prejudice • Dominant social group absorb implicit negative attitudes towards minority groups while they are growing up in American society • Reject the racialized traditional beliefs that support modern-symbolic prejudice • Strongly motivated to see themselves as unprejudiced and lack of prejudice is an important aspect of their self-concept • Prefer to avoid most interracial contact because it arouses the negative affect they associate with minority groups.

  35. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice • Three underpinnings for Psychological Bases of Aversive Prejudice • Cognitive categorization • Predisposition leads people to categorize people into discrete social groups and to contrast groups • Belief that their own group is better than other groups • Socialization of two sets of incompatible values that are in conflict • Will not discriminate in situation in which they recognize that discrimination would be obvious to others and themselves. • Situational factors that arouse prejudice such as interracial interactions

  36. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice • Aversive Prejudice and Behaviors • Avoidance of contact with members of minority groups • Motivated by feelings of anxiety and discomfort • Low intimacy with members of minority groups • Highly scripted situations, rules for interaction are clear and accepted by all participants • Overly positive intergroup behavior • desire to appear unprejudiced

  37. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice • Aversive Prejudice and Behaviors • Pro-White bias • Show pro-white bias in ambiguous situations • Anti-minority discrimination • Will discriminate against members of other groups when the behavior can be justified as unprejudiced • Derogation of higher status minority group members • Belief in White superiority, discomfort is greater when Black people or people of color are in higher status positions.

  38. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAmbivalent Prejudice Ambivalent prejudice holds that the majority social group (White Americans) genuinely accept the principle of racial equality. However, they perceive that people of color have negative and positive characteristics, and their attitudes and behavior are ambivalenttowards these minority social groups.

  39. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAmbivalent Prejudice Types of ambivalent racial attitudes Individualism—emphasizes personal responsibility, hard work as the means to success, self-reliance, and trying to improve one’s lot in life Humanitarianism/egalitarianism—belief that all people should be treated equally and that people have a responsibility to help others who are disadvantaged

  40. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAmbivalent Prejudice • Theory of ambivalence by majority group • History of Black people leads to perception as deviant and disadvantaged • Affect peoples perceptions • Leads to negative feelings • Feelings of sympathy for the disadvantaged • Leading to mixed feelings/Benevolence

  41. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAmbivalent Prejudice Psychological Conflict Conflict with the egalitarian value system Cognitive dissonance—people prefer that all their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors adhere to simple, consistent patterns. Any inconsistencies or contradictions lead to a state of unpleasant emotion which people are motivated to reduce

  42. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceBenevolent and Hostile Prejudice Benevolent Prejudice--is expressed in terms of positive beliefs and emotional responses to targets of prejudice Hostile prejudice--refers to the traditional form of prejudice. Expressed in terms of negative beliefs about and emotional response to targets of prejudice

  43. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceOld-fashioned Racism Marta believes that political correctness has gone too far and that everyone knows Blacks should have been kept in their place. She would prefer her children attend segregated schools and believes that Blacks simply don’t have the same abilities as whites.

  44. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceContemporary Prejudice Bill simply doesn’t believe that Blacks today are discriminated against. He is sure that Blacks who work hard earn good salary and that lazy Blacks get the pay they deserve. Bill is sure that the reason he has not been promoted to supervisors is because his company has a quota system that favors Blacks and other minorities over whites.

  45. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAmbivalent Prejudice Julie thinks of herself as an accepting person and readily admits that Blacks have been disadvantaged in many ways. She strongly believes that when tax dollars go to support the poor, it is money well spent and helps level the playing field. Yet, at the same time, Julie can’t understand why Blacks don’t try a little harder to fit in. She dislikes hip hop, for example, and thinks that those artists set a bad example for younger people by both their dress and their manner. She gets uncomfortable, however, when her daughter points out that such beliefs are incompatible with a tolerant perspective.

  46. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceSubtle Prejudice Silvia lives in Northern Italy and genuinely likes many of the people she’s met from Southern Italy. At the same time, she sees a larger cultural gap between her beliefs and those of many Southern Italians; in her view, people from that region are sexist and intrusive, compared to people from her area who value tolerance.

  47. Old-Fashioned and Contemporary Forms of PrejudiceAversive Prejudice Harold thinks of himself as an accepting person. He regularly contributes money to the American Civil Liberties Union because they are such good advocates for equality for all people. However, when Harold chose his house, he was careful to find a predominately White neighborhood and joined local social organizations whose members were similar to him. He would be very upset if one of his children married a person of another race.