history of the modern middle east n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
History of the Modern Middle East PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
History of the Modern Middle East

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28
merritt-nixon

History of the Modern Middle East - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

122 Views
Download Presentation
History of the Modern Middle East
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. History of the Modern Middle East

  2. The Arab League Definition: an organization of 22 Middle Eastern and African nations where Arabic is the spoken language that promotes political, economic, cultural, and social relations among members • Additional Information: • founded in 1945 • council of representatives from member states work to settle disputes peacefully • has had difficulty living up to goals • ARABSAT (satellite systems)

  3. O.P.E.C. Definition: an association of 12 countries that depend heavily on oil exports for their incomes and work together to increase revenue from oil exports. • Additional Information: • founded in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela • OPEC nations produce 40% of world’s oil • OPEC nations possess 70% of world’s oil • OPEC have a direct impact on world oil prices along with: world conflict, global demand, and stock market speculation

  4. Saudi Arabia • Birthplace of Islam • Has the world’s largest amount of oil reserves and largest exporter of oil in the world • Government: Monarchy • Current Leader: King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz • Law Code: Sharia Law (strict Islamic law)

  5. United Arab Emirates • UAE is a federation of 7 emirates (sovereign state) • Great Britain expand influence in 1800’s and early 1900’s • Independence in 1971 • Economy dominated by oil exports (70’s, 80’s, 90’s) • Economy hurt by 2008-09 global recession and banking crisis • Result: call of political & economic reforms • Economy: Open Market (growing economy) • Government: constitutional federation of • absolute monarchies

  6. Iran-Iraq War • Began Sept. 22, 1980 when Iraqi President Saddam Hussein orders invasion of Iran • Ended Aug. 20, 1988 with a cease-fire agreement • Additional Information: • longest war between two nations in the 1900’s • Reasons for the war: • - Iraq thought Iran was in a weak state • - Iraq (and other Arab nations) feared • Iran’s Shiite revolution • - Iran and Iraq had territorial disputes • - Iraq saw a chance to control Iran’s oil

  7. Terrorism • Definition: The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or govts. • Types: • State Sponsored • Domestic • Religious

  8. Hamas • Definition: Islamist political party that currently governs the Gaza portion of the Palestinian territories • Additional Information: • founded in 1987 during the 1st Intifada • ideals are based on the principles of Islamic fundamentalism • carry out suicide attacks, rocket attacks, and guerilla warfare against Israel • classified as a terrorist group by the European Union, the United States, Canada, Israel, & Japan

  9. Hezbollah • Definition: Shi’a Muslim group and political party based in Lebanon; known as a resistance movement of the Arab & Muslim world; currently hold seats in Lebanon’s government • Additional Information: • emerged in 1982 as result of 1st Lebanon War • carry out suicide attacks & rocket attacks • against Israel • armed & funded by Iran and Syria • classified as a terrorist group by Great Britain, • the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, • Israel, & Australia

  10. Al Qaeda • Definition: militant Islamist organization • Additional Information: • created in 1988 in Saudi Arabia by Osama bin Laden • labeled as a terrorist group by the U.S., U.N., European Union, NATO, Australia, India, Japan, Russia, Turkey, South Korea, others • Goal: Jihad against the United States and the West • Osama bin Laden killed in 2011 by Navy Seals • Power and Strength in decline since mid Iraq War

  11. Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda1. The Pentagon, US – Sep 11, 2001 4. Aden, Yemen – Oct 12, 20002. World Trade Center, US – Sep 11, 2001 5. Nairobi, Kenya – Aug 7, 19983. Istanbul, Turkey – Nov 15, 2003; Nov 20, 2003 6. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – Aug 7, 1998 2 3 1 4 6 5

  12. The Persian Gulf War • Began in response to President Saddam Hussein and Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on Aug.2, 1990 • U.N. coalition (Desert Shield) began bombing Jan. 17, 1991 • Coalition forces launched ground attack (Desert Storm) into Kuwait and Southern Iraq in February • U.N. coalition ended military operations Feb. 28, 1991 • Additional Information: • first international crisis after Cold War • tested U.S. and Russia’s ability to cooperate • split Arab world between Iraq & Coalition • Results in Iraq: environmental issues, refugees, casualties, revolts, economic hardships

  13. Iran: Background • Known as Persia till 1935 (Reza Pahlavi becomes Shah-monarch-) • 1979 Iranian Revolution (Ayatollah Khomeini overthrows Shah and establishes a theocratic-Islamic- government) • 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis (radical students storm U.S. embassy in Tehran and held 52 hostages for 444 days) • 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War (Saddam Hussein orders Iraqi invasion of Iran) • 2005-2012 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad • current president of Iran

  14. Iran: Current Issues

  15. Iran: Current Issues

  16. Afghanistan: Background • Problem: Afghanistan is “TRIBAL” - Created by the West placing various ethnic groups together as one nation Ethnic groups: 42% = Pashtun 4% = Aimak 27% = Tajik 3% = Turkmen 9% = Hazara 2% = Baloch 9% = Uzbek 4% = Other Fact: “-stan” means “land of”

  17. Afghanistan: History • 1747 Founded in modern Afghanistan in1747 • Mid-1800’s British expand influence from Pakistan • Durand Line creates boundary between Afghanistan and Pakistan dividing Pashtuns. Pashtun Lands • 1919 Afghanistan sovereign from British influence • 1973-1978 bloodless coup creates democratic govt.

  18. Afghanistan: History • 1978 communist govt. created • Mujahideen fighters (Muslim Afghan opposition youth groups trained in Pakistan) • 1979-1989 Soviet Union invades Afghanistan • 1989-1996 Afghan Civil War = Taliban seizes control of Afghanistan • Taliban (Islamic militant political group created from religious schools for Afghan refugees in Pakistan) • 1996-2001 Taliban rule of Afghanistan • Strict Islamic law = Human rights violations • Al-Qaeda based in Afghanistan since 1997 • 2001 Operation Enduring Freedom • Allied invasion of Afghanistan • overthrow Taliban and est. Democracy • 2009-2012 Taliban insurgency and Peace Talks

  19. The Iraq War • Began March 2003 when the U.S. and coalition of 39 nations launched an invasion of Iraq • Mid-April 2003 Saddam Hussein and Iraq’s govt. fell • U.S. President George W. Bush ends combat operations May 1, 2003 • Operation Iraqi Freedom: • May 2003 to August 2010 • 2004 Sunni violence against Shia Iraqi govt. and U.S. forces • 2007 U.S. adds troop build-up • Aug. 31, 2010 U.S. ends combat operations • Dec. 31, 2011 U.S. troops expect to leave Iraq

  20. Arab Spring Definition: revolutionary movement via civil uprising (protests)in the Arab world against their governments • Additional Information: • Began in Tunisia on December 18, 2010 • Nations affected: Tunisia. Egypt, Yemen, • Oman, Libya, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Jordan, • Morocco, Kuwait, Lebanon • Rulers has been forced from power in Tunisia, • Egypt, Libya, and Yemen • Protests and Clashes continue in Syria (to date)