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The Modern Middle East. Ch. 31 Sec. 4. Diversity Brings Challenges. Kurds divided when Europeans drew borders Lived Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey today 1991 Kurds set up their own government in northern Iraq with military support from Britain and US. Israel is Founded.

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diversity brings challenges
Diversity Brings Challenges
  • Kurds divided when Europeans drew borders
    • Lived Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey today
  • 1991 Kurds set up their own government in northern Iraq with military support from Britain and US
israel is founded
Israel is Founded
  • Britain supported a Jewish national homeland
    • Holocaust gave Jews worldwide support
  • 1947 UN drew up a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state
    • Jews agreed/Arabs rejected it
  • 1948 Britain withdrew from Palestine- Jews proclaimed the land Independent state of Israel
  • Arabs started the first of several wars
  • Israel attracted Jews from all over the world
conflicts over resources and religion
Conflicts Over Resources and Religion
  • Supplying the World with Oil
    • Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and UAE= Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    • 1973: OPEC’s Arab members blocked oil shipments to the US to protect US support of Israel
    • Led to worldwide recession
    • Since 1970 OPEC focuses on regulating price of oil
islam confronts modernization
Islam Confronts Modernization
  • Some Middle Eastern countries adopted Western forms of secular government and law
  • Middle Eastern leaders also adopted Western economic models
  • 1970s Muslim leaders called for a return to Sharia
  • Became known as Islamists- blamed social and economic ills on Western models
    • Some have used violence to pursue their goals
women s options vary
Women’s options Vary
  • Conditions for women vary from country to country
  • In most countries have won equality
  • In some countries women have given up the tradition of hejab
  • Religiously conservative countries still require hejab and other limitations on women
  • Education is still limited- not needed to wife/mother
egypt a leader in the arab world
Egypt, a leader in the Arab World
  • Strategic location- borders Israel & controls Suez Canal
  • 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez ending British and French control
  • US and Soviets forced British and French to fully withdraw
  • Since US supported Israel, Egypt took support from Soviet Union (Cold War)
  • 1979 Anwar Sadat made peace with Israel and sought aid from US- Frustrated Islamists
    • Muslim fundamentalists assassinated Sadat
    • Hosni Mubarak- sought Islamists support with harsh gov.
iran s islamic revolution
Iran’s Islamic Revolution
  • Due to oil fields Iran attracted attention from British, Soviets, and Americans
  • Backed by Western powers Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi faced nationalist opponent Mohammad Mosaddeq (1951 elected Prime Minister)
  • 1953 US helped Shah Pahlavi oust Mosaddeq- Outraged many Iranians
  • With American support, shah held power for the next 25 years

Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

islam confronts modernization1
Islam Confronts Modernization
  • To strengthen Iran and quiet unrest- shah used oil wealth to build industries
    • Redistributed land to peasants, extended rights to women
    • Shah’s secret police terrorized critics and sent many into exile
  • 1970s shah’s foes rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
    • He condemned Western influence & accused shah of breaking Islamic law
    • Drove the shah into exile
    • Proclaimed Iran an Islamic republic- Theocracy


Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

oil religion and threats to stability
Oil, Religion, and Threats to Stability
  • Saudi Arabia has the world’s largest oil reserve
    • Also included Islam’s Holy Land
  • Joined OPEC oil embargo in 1973, then returned to relations with the West
  • To build support, Royal family backed fundamentalist religious leaders
    • Protested relations with the Western world
  • Opponents of the kingdom adopted violent (terrorist) tactics
  • Kuwait, Qatar, & UAE face similar threats
conflicts in the middle east

Conflicts in the Middle East

Chapter 32 Section 3

arabs and israelis fight over land
Arabs and Israelis Fight Over Land
  • United Nations Partition Plan formed Israel 1948
  • As Arab nations fought against Israel- new nation expanded
    • Took territories- West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights
  • 1960s- Formation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) headed by Yasir Arafat
    • PLO called for destruction of Israel
  • Palestinians opposed Israel through intifadas
    • Very harsh fighting back and forth
seeking peace
Seeking Peace
  • US, UN, and others pushed for peace
  • Golda Meir- Israel’s first female Prime Minister tried to make negotiated peace when Palestine attacked
  • 1979- Israel and Egypt signed a Peace agreement
    • Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
  • Talks between Israel and Syria failed over the issues of:
    • Security
    • Recognition of Israel
    • Control of Golan Heights
seeking peace continued
Seeking Peace Continued
  • 1993 Yasir Arafat and Israel Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed Oslo Accord
    • Planned to give Palestinians in Gaza Strip and West Bank limited self rule under Palestinian Authority
    • PLO recognized Israel and agreed to stop terrorism
    • Yasir Arafat assumed responsibility of Palestinian Authority
  • 2000- radical Palestinian groups stepped up terrorist attacks
  • Palestinian suicide bombers and Israeli reprisals brought fear and bitterness
overcoming obstacles to peace
Overcoming Obstacles to Peace
  • Despite distrust and fear, other obstacles remained:
    • Land claims- many Palestinians want right to settle anywhere in Israel “Right of Return”
    • Future of Israeli settlements in the occupied territories
    • Jerusalem- home of religious sites to different religions
    • Many Arabs were unwilling to recognize Israel’s right to exist
  • 2000s- US devised a new plan “Road Map” to peace- called for two states of Israel and democratic Palestine to exist side by side
overcoming obstacles to peace1
Overcoming Obstacles to Peace
  • 2004 Israel planned to withdraw settlements from Gaza
    • Plan angered some Israelis and did not satisfy Palestinians
  • 2004-Yasir Arafat died- democratically elected successor pledged to stop Palestinian terrorist attacks
    • 2005 Israel released hundred of Palestinian prisoners
civil war ravages lebanon
Civil War Ravages Lebanon
  • The government depended on a delicate balance among Arab Christians, Sunni Muslims, Shiite Muslims, and Druze (Related to Islam)
    • Christians held most power because they had the largest group at independence, but Palestinian Muslims fled to Lebanon when Israel formed and outnumbered the Christians
  • 1975 religious tension plunged Lebanon into civil war
    • Israel invaded southern Lebanon to stop cross-border attacks
    • Syria occupied eastern Lebanon to secure its borders
  • 1990- civil war ended
iraq s long history of conflict
Iraq’s Long History of Conflict
  • Conflict in Iraq partly due to oil wealth and ethnic diversity- during Cold War Iraq’s oil was fought over by SU and US
    • Began to develop close ties with SU
  • 1979- Saddam Hussein seized power in Iraq and ruled as a dictator
  • 1980- Hussein tried to take advantage of Islamic revolution in Iran
    • Triggered a prolonged war
    • Hussein used chemical weapons on Kurdish civilians
the gulf war brings defeat
The Gulf War Brings Defeat
  • 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait to control its vast oil field and gain greater access to the Persian Gulf
  • US said Hussein’s move was illegal but also a threat to oil resources of the Persian Gulf region
    • President George H.W. Bush formed a coalition of Western and Middle Eastern nations- launched a counterattack against Iraqi forces 1991
    • 1991 Gulf War led by US operated under the UN banner- quickly liberated Kuwait and crushed Iraqis
  • Despite defeat- Hussein remain in power
defeat of saddam hussein
Defeat of Saddam Hussein
  • US, Britain, and France had to set up no-fly zones to protect Kurds and Shiites
    • UN tried to keep Hussein from using oil wealth to build Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)
  • Hussein disregarded no-fly zones and did not work with the UN inspectors
  • 2002- US and Britain charged Hussein had WMD
    • US President George W. Bush accused Iraqi government of supporting terrorists
  • 2003- Iraq War- coalition forces toppled Saddam Hussein and occupied the country
iraq tries to rebuild
Iraq Tries to Rebuild
  • Efforts to rebuild were limited by guerilla attacks and suicide bombings
  • Insurgents targeted foreigners and Iraqi citizens- especially those cooperating with foreign troops
  • 2005 National elections held for first time in history
  • Shiite majority won control of government- faced attacks by different insurgent groups
  • Ethnic and religious divisions remained obstacles