Modern Middle East. Israel. The modern country of Israel was established in 1948 . Many beliefs and events led to its creation including Zionism , Anti-Semitism , and the Holocaust . Zionism is a Jewish movement that began in Europe in the late 19 th century.
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hostility toward or prejudice
against Jews or Judaism.
defeated by the Israeli army.
In 1964, the PalestinianLiberation Organization (PLO) was formed.
refugees in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon,
He was also responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis.