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The ISS. Peter Dornan Imperial College London. Neutrino Oscillation. `atmospheric’. `cross/reactor’. `solar’. Oscillation defined by 3 mixing angles, q 12 , q 13 , q 23 1 phase , d. Where are we?. from: Maltoni, Schwetz, Tortola, Valle (’04).

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the iss

The ISS

Peter Dornan

Imperial College London

neutrino oscillation
Neutrino Oscillation

`atmospheric’

`cross/reactor’

`solar’

Oscillation defined by 3 mixing angles, q12, q13, q23

1 phase, d

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

where are we
Where are we?

from: Maltoni, Schwetz, Tortola, Valle (’04)

Also know m2 > m1from matter effects in the sun

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

unanswered oscillation expts
Unanswered – Oscillation Expts
  • Is q23 maximal?
  • How small is q13?
  • CP Violation in the lepton sector?
  • Mass hierarchy?
    • m3 < or > m2
  • Is the MNS approach correct?
  • CPT violation?
  • The ultimate accuracy on the mixing angles and the mass differences
    • What accuracy is needed?
  • (LSND? Sterile neutrino(s)? )

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

the precision era after t2k and nova
The Precision Era - after T2K and Nova
  • Around 2012 - 2015
  • We shall have good measurements of
    • q12, q23, Dm212, Dm223
  • Probably have a measurement of q13
  • Possibly know the mass hierarchy
  • So can now plan for the ultimate neutrino measurements
    • Refine all parameters
    • Check consistency
    • Measure CP Violation
  • This is the aim of the ISS

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

neutrino source options
Neutrino source – options:
  • Second generation super-beam
    • CERN, FNAL, BNL, J-PARC II
  • Beta-beam
  • Neutrino Factory

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

the international scoping study
The International Scoping Study
    • International scoping study of a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility
  • Motivation
  • Organisation
  • Status
    • Physics Group
    • Accelerator Group
    • Detector Group
  • ISS: next steps

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss motivation
ISS: motivation
  • Neutrino Factory – prior to launch of ISS
    • Several studies at the turn of the century
      • US Studies I, II, IIa
      • ECFA/CERN Study
      • NuFact-J Study

established feasibility & R&D programme

    • MUCOOL, MICE, MERIT….
  • But there have been advances since then
  • Also appreciation of the need for an integrated accelerator-detector-physics approach
    • and an international approach

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss motivation1
ISS: motivation
  • Preparation for design study
    • Review physics case
      • Critical comparison of options
    • Review options for accelerator complex:
      • Prepare concept-development and hardware-R&D roadmaps for design-study phase
    • Review options for neutrino-detection systems
      • Emphasis: identify concept-development and hardware-R&D roadmaps for design-study phase
    • Establish the Cost Drivers & Optimize
      • Physics/$ - where there are alternatives
      • Absolute scientific value - where only one method

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss organisation
ISS: organisation

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

meetings
Meetings
  • Plenary meetings to date:
    • CERN: 22 – 24 September 2005
      • Attendance: 92
      • Americas: 15 Asia: 12 Europe 65
    • KEK: 23 – 26 January 2006
      • Attendance: 67
      • Americas: 11 Asia: 28 Europe 28
    • RAL 25 – 28 April 2006
      • Attendance 70
  • Final Plenary Meeting
      • Irvine, Aug 21 – 22
      • Just before NuFact06

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

physics group
Physics Group
  • Theory subgroup :
    • What is the new physics
    • Need to distinguish between alternative theories
    • Establish the case for high-precision, high-sensitivity neutrino-oscillation programme
  • Phenomenological subgroup
    • Review models of neutrino oscillations
    • Identify measurables that distinguish them and assess the precision required
  • Experimental subgroup:
    • Use realistic assumptions on the performance of accelerator and detector to:
      • Evaluate performance of the super-beam, beta-beam and Neutrino Factory alone or in combination
    • Make meaningful comparisons
  • Muon physics subgroup:
    • Lepton-flavour violating processes – clear synergy with neutrino oscillations – possibly the next major discovery

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

some theoretical ideas
Some Theoretical Ideas
  • Quark-lepton complementarity
    • Intriguing Relations
      • Coincidence
      • fundamental
    • GUTs motivate relationships between the quark and lepton mixing matrices
    • Measurable relations
    • Need Precision

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

quark lepton complementarity
Quark-lepton complementarity

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

a possible neutrino sum rule
A Possible Neutrino Sum Rule

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

t owards a performance comparison
Towards a performance comparison
  • A Major Goal of the ISS
    • Now many options
    • Must be reduced if there is to be a realistic design for a ‘precision era’ neutrino facility
  • Requires justifiable assumptions:
    • Accelerator: flux, energy spectrum
    • Detector: Ethresh, ERes (background, x-sect. uncertainty…)

and optimised facility (accelerator, baseline, & detectors)

Already a very substantial amount of work

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

cases under consideration
Cases under Consideration
  • Off axis super-beam:
    • T2HK taken as example
      • Plan to explore different options (essentially vary E and L)
  • Beta beam:
    • Low :  = 100 and L = 130 km
      • High flux (~1018 decays per year) and high flux (1019 dpy)
    • High :  = 350 and L = 700 km
      • High flux (~1018 decays per year) and high flux (1019 dpy)
      • Also Beta beam abd superbeam combination
  • Neutrino Factory
    • Performance studied as a function of:
      • E and L
      • Ethresh and ERes

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

sample cp sensitivity v sin 2 2 q 13
Sample - CP sensitivity v. sin22q13

Huber, Lindner, Rolinec, Winter

Work in progress

But highlights the importance of q13 in defining a strategy

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

cpt the mns theory
CPT & the MNS Theory

Murayama

  • In the Quark sector the CP violation parameters are determined in many ways
  • Can we do the same in the neutrino sector?
  • With 3 flavours and CPT
    • CP violation related in
      • ne -> nm
      • nm -> nt
      • ne -> nt

Needs tau modes

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

physics report
Physics Report

How important – gold, silver, platinum?

In the ideal scenario should we measure

ne→ ne, nm, nt

nm→ ne, nm, nt

Specifically - how important are the tau channels?

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

neutrino factory optimisation
Neutrino Factory: optimisation
  • Study performance as a function of muon energy and baseline
  • Detector:
    • 100 kton, magnetised iron
    • Importance of threshold sensitivity
  • Can trade muon energy against detector threshold and resolution

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

muon physics the n factory
Muon Physics & the n Factory

Intense muon beams are needed for muon physics

Could be the place for the next major advance

But - is a n Factory suitable for muon experiments?

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss status accelerator group
ISS status: Accelerator Group
  • Most work on n-Factory
  • Subsystems & subgroups
    • Proton driver
    • Target and capture
    • Front end
      • Bunching and phase rotation
      • Cooling
    • Acceleration
    • Decay ring

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

towards a baseline n factory
Towards a Baseline n-Factory
  • RF Frequency: Baseline is 201 MHz• Phase Rotation: Baseline is Neuffer bunched beam rotation• Phase Rotation: Baseline RMS bunch length 2 ns• Amount of Cooling: Baseline is 50 m• Target: Baseline is Liquid Mercury• Pion Collection: 20 T Solenoid• Repetition Rate: 50 (Hz)• Proton bunch structure: 4 bunches spaced by 16 μsec• Proton energy: 5-15 (GeV)• Final acceleration: No decision yet• Storage Ring: Choice is site dependent

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss status detector group
ISS status: Detector Group
  • Detector options and subgroups
    • Large water Cherenkov
      • ISS activity focuses on consideration of R&D required:
        • Photo tubes
        • Front-end electronics
    • Liquid argon
    • Emulsion
    • Magnetic sampling calorimeter
    • Near detector
  • Further instrumentation issues:
    • Flux, muon-polarisation measurement

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

detector questions
Detector Questions

Which can effectively be magnetised?

Iron calorimeter, Emulsion, Hybrid Emulsion-Scintillator, Totally active scintillator

Liquid Argon??

How low can one reduce the threshold?

Can the Detector be on the surface

Which can identify taus?

This must tie in with the relevance of gold, silver platinum

Usefulness for non-oscillation physics

Define the necessary R&D Programme

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

neutrino factory future development
Neutrino Factory Future Development
  • Following ISS there needs to be a Design Study for a Neutrino Factory
    • It will need engineering effort
    • And therefore resources
    • Where can these come from?
      • Funding Agencies, Labs, EU
    • At the BENE/ISS meeting tomorrow planning for a request to the EU FP7 programme will start
      • But funding from this source will not come until mid-end 2007
    • Activity must start before then - it should start this year
      • And maintain the momentum of the ISS study

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

timescale the challenges
Timescale – the Challenges

n Factory

b Beam

But

n Factory and

b beam can be

on same timescale

as superbeam upgrades

Era of

sensitivity & precision

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006

iss summary
ISS – Summary
  • The ISS was launched at NuFact05 and is now over half way through its one year programme
    • Conclude at NuFact06 and a report early fall
  • It has demonstrated a strong desire to have an internationally coordinated effort for future neutrino research (c.f linear collider)
    • New ideas
    • Many clarifications
  • It has brought together accelerator & detector scientists with their experimental and theoretical physics colleagues in a very productive way
  • It has built up a momentum which must be used as a springboard for the next phase

P Dornan - MUTAC 2006