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OB Outcomes: Attitudes and Behaviors Effort Job Satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Stress Workplace Violence Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Commitment Employee Theft Safety and Accidents Sexual Harassment Grievances. Influenced by Managers Using

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organizational behavior course model
OB Outcomes: Attitudesand Behaviors


Job Satisfaction




Workplace Violence

Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Commitment

Employee Theft

Safety and Accidents

Sexual Harassment


Influenced by Managers Using

Application of Individual Differences



Attitude change



Group Dynamics

Reward Systems

Job Design


Organizational Behavior Course Model

Definition: Stress occurs when an individual

cannot adequately respond to job or org. stimuli

without damage (e.g., fatigue, worry, heart disease).

Established Research:



(giving a speech, studying for a test)

Conclusion: Nearly all work-induced stress is undesirable, not a bell-shaped curve

reasons for managing stress
  • Corporate self-interest
  • ● #1Fringe benefit?
  • ● Popular prescription drugs?
  • ● How did stress get linked to
  • health care costs? Control Data
  • 2. Liability; worker’s compensation
  • 3. Key people most affected
  • 4. Moral/ethical/humanistic reasons
corporate self interest reducing health care costs
Corporate Self-Interest: Reducing Health Care Costs
  • Control Data Corp. 1987 case
  • 2007: Overweight → 11.65 claims/100 FT

Avg. weight → 5.80 claims/100 FT

  • Wellmark: Has offered financial awards for some lifestyle activities
  • Selection practices. Do not hire those who consume alcohol or smoke (e.g., Pella, Lucullan’s, Wellmark)
  • Choice of “carrot” vs. “stick”
lifestyle policies company policy

Gannett, General Mills, Pepsi, Monthly surcharge for smokers

Sauer-Danfoss, Iowa Telecom Wellmark/BCBS 15%

Macys, Gannett, GE

Hy-Vee $10 Health Insurance reduction

for nonsmokers

GuideOne Discounts for not smoking or drinking; extra coverage when volunteering & church attendance

Alabama, South Carolina $25/month Health Insurance

surcharge for use of tobacco products or excessive weight

lifestyle policies company policy6

AmeriGas Get check-up or lose health insurance

Mohawk Industries $100/month penalty for not participating in a health risk assessment

Michelin Meeting healthy standards for BP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, & waist size (35 women, 40 men) earn $1000 toward deductibles

Turner Broadcasting First to not hire smokers

Union Pacific (where legal to do so)

Affordable Care Act Insurers can charge 50% more for premiums (12-1-13 DMR)

sidebar on employees who smoke
Sidebar on Employees Who Smoke
  • Smoking on decline in U.S: 19% of U.S. adults, 18% of Iowans, but growing world wide
  • Center for Disease Control says smoking costs the nation $167 billion
  • Federal studies show smokers cost an average business $3400 more per year because of increased medical expenses and absenteeism
  • Over a lifetime, employees who smoke incur $16,000 more in medical bills
sidebar on employees who smoke8
Sidebar on Employees Who Smoke
  • Growing evidence that financial incentives can induce people to quit smoking
  • GE: 878 employees received info on smoking cessation. Divided into non-compensated and compensated groups.
  • Compensated group got $100 for completing cessation program, $250 if they stopped w/in 6 months of being in the study and $400 if they remained smoke free 6 months later
sidebar on employees who smoke9
Sidebar on Employees Who Smoke
  • Results

% Smoke-Free

Compensated Not Compensated

End of First Year: 14.7% 5%

At 18 months: 9.4% 3.6%

  • The “ship has sailed” with respect to smoking bans at work and in the community. Can obesity management be far behind?
sidebar obese employees
Sidebar: Obese Employees
  • One in 3 adults is obese (BMI > 30)
  • Surgeon General says obesity costs the nation > $100 billion
  • Obesity accounts for 5-7% of health care costs. For a company of 1000 employees, an extra $395,000
  • Programs to combat obesity on the rise (e.g., Google & Caterpillar put healthy food in vending machines, cafeterias charge less for healthy food)
  • Alabama and S.C. will charge employees w/BMI > 35 $25/month for insurance that is otherwise free
reducing liability and worker s compensation costs
Reducing Liability and Worker’s Compensation Costs
  • Extension of safe working environment (Health & Safety Work Act of 1974)
  • Stress accounts for as much as 14 % of occupational disease claims
  • As work becomes increasingly mental and service-oriented, as opposed to manual, what will happen?
key people most affected
Key People Most Affected
  • Loss of highly valued senior people
  • Relations to stock prices and public confidence (TI & Disney; Apple)
  • Impact on negotiations
  • Hypothetical cost figures (next slide)
occupational stress rankings

Job Stress somewhat predictable….

Occupational Stress Rankings

High StressLow Stress

1. U.S. President 250. Music instrument repairer

2. Firefighter 249. Florist

3. Senior Executive 246. Actuary

4. Taxi driver 206. Computer Programmer

5. Surgeon 122. Mechanical Engineer

10. Air Traffic Controller 119. Economist

20. Stockbroker 103. Market Researcher

Criteria: Overtime, quotas, deadlines, competitiveness, physical

demands, hazards, initiative required, stamina, win-lose

situations, and working in the public eye

Source: Wall Street Journal, 1996; based on 250 jobs; updated by Jobs Rated Almanac, 6th ed. 2002

types of stress

1. Origins of stress

2. Non-work stress

3. Work stress

a. Air traffic controllers

b. NASA workers

c. OSHA layoff studies

d. Accountants


A Managerial Model of Stress

Antecedents Intermediary Health

(Stressors/stress creators)Stress Outcomes Consequences

  • Physiological
  • Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Blood pressure
  • Blood glucose
  • Catecholamines
  • Free radicals
  • Behavioral
  • Job satisfaction
  • Career satisfaction
  • Life satisfaction
  • Performance
  • Absenteeism
  • Turnover
  • Accidents
  • Grievances
  • Physical Environment
  • Individual Factors
  • Work overload
  • Role conflict
  • Role ambiguity
  • Responsibility
  • for others
  • Underutilization
  • of skills
  • Resource inadequacy
  • Group Factors
  • Cohesion
  • Conflict
  • Satisfaction
  • Org. Factors
  • Climate
  • Technology
  • Control systems
  • Job Design






  • Coronary heart disease
  • Rheumatic
  • arthritis
  • Ulcers
  • Allergies
  • Headaches
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Apathy
  • Nervous
  • exhaustion
  • Alcoholism
  • Individual Differences
  • (cognitive/affective)
  • Type A/B
  • Locus of control
  • Tolerance for
  • ambiguity
  • Need for achievement
  • Self-esteem
  • Corporate Practices
  • On-site child care
  • EAPs
  • Wellness programs
  • Individual Differences
  • (demographics & behavior)
  • Heredity
  • Age, Sex
  • Education
  • Occupation, Hours worked
  • Health status
  • Alcohol and tobacco use
  • Exercise and diet
  • Family support
  • Non-Organizational
  • Family relations
  • Economic status
  • Work/family conflict

(moderator factors)

antecedents of stress stressors where managers can intervene column 1
Antecedents of Stress (Stressors) where Managers Can Intervene (Column #1)

Physical Environment

Individual factors

  • ↑Work overload → ↑ Stress

■ Quantitative

■ Qualitative (KSAs)

  • ↑ Role conflict → ↑ Stress
  • ↑ Role ambiguity → ↑ Stress
  • ↑ Responsibility for others → ↑ Stress
  • ↑ Underutilization of skills → ↑ Stress
  • ↑ Resource inadequacy → ↑ Stress
individual differences and corporate interventions
Individual Differencesand Corporate Interventions

Cognitive/Affective Differences

  • Type A/B
  • Locus of control
  • Tolerance for ambiguity
  • Need for achievement
  • Self-esteem

Corporate Interventions

  • On-site child care
  • Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
  • Wellness programs
personality traits

Type A

High achievement orientation


Restless; impatient

Constant sense of time urgency

Type B

No time urgency or resulting impatience

Feels no need to display/discuss achievements

Plays for fun and relaxation

Can relax without guilt

correlates of type a b

1. As report more work overload

2. As work more hours

3. As have higher serum cholesterol

ratings in college students

4. The “A” trait best predictor of CHD

among those less than 49 years

5. Most damaging components of “A” are

being distrustful and hostile

type a and b behaviors


Fast workers Patient

Emphasizes quantity Tactful

Works long hours Reflective

Rarely creative Creative

Sometimes makes poor Make careful

decisions because they decisions

work too fast

approaches to stress reduction

1. Dissipation/Health Promotion

a. Exercise

b. Bio-feedback; massage

c. Overload/role conflict reduction via concierge

and “go to meeting”

d. Newsletters

2. Selection & Placement

3. Training (conflict mgmt, time mgmt,

lunch & learns, ADR, omsbudpersons)

4. Job Redesign & Work Scheduling

(lessen role ambiguity, role conflict,

reduce underutilization of skills)

perceptions of managerial jobs have changed
Perceptions of Managerial Jobs Have Changed

% of Managers who agree that:EightiesMore recent

1. Burnout is a serious problem 40% %

2. Managers are working too many hours 39% %

3. More and more, managers are physically

exhausted by the end of the workday 38% %

4. Managers often take too much work

home with them 47% %

5. Managers have high job security 26% %