organizational behavior n.
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  1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Chapter 14 -15 Power & Politics Conflicts & Negotiation Chapter 14-15

  2. A Definition of Power Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes Dependency Bs relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires Chapter 14-15

  3. Leadership Focuses on goal achievement Requires goal compatibility with followers Focuses influence downward Research Focus Leadership styles and relationships with followers Power Used as a means for achieving goals Requires follower dependency Used to gain lateral and upward influence Research Focus Power tactics for gaining compliance Contrasting Leadership and Power Chapter 14-15

  4. Dependency: The Key To Power • The General Dependency Postulate (suppose) • The greater Bs dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B • Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful • Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power • What Creates Dependency • Importance of the resource to the organization • Scarcity of the resource • Nonsubstitutability of the resource Chapter 14-15

  5. Power Tactics Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translatepower bases into specific actions • Influence Tactics • Legitimacy Authority Position • Rational persuasion: Presenting logic arguments • Inspirational appeals: Emotional commitment • Consultation : Motivate and support • Exchange: Rewarding with benefits • Personal appeals: Loyalty & Friendship • Pressure : Using warning • Coalitions Chapter 14-15

  6. Power in Groups: Coalitions Coalitions Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to achieve a specific purpose Chapter 14-15

  7. Politics: Power in Action Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization since it influence the goals criteria or process used for decision making Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics e.g. Complaining to supervisor ,forming collations Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game e.g. sabotage Chapter 14-15

  8. Factors that Influence (Encourage) Political Behaviors E X H I B I T 14-4 Chapter 14-15

  9. Employee Responses to Organizational PoliticsOrganizational politics and individuals out com E X H I B I T 14-5 Chapter 14-15

  10. Conflict • Conflict Defined • A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about • That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict • Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations • Incompatibility of goals • Differences over interpretations of facts • Disagreements based on behavioral expectations Chapter 14-15

  11. Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided • Causes • Poor communication • Lack of openness • Failure to respond to employee needs Chapter 14-15

  12. Transitions in Conflict Thought Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively Chapter 14-15

  13. Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict (Positive) Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders(blocks)group performance (Negative) Chapter 14-15

  14. Types of Conflict Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work Relationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships Process Conflict Conflict over how work gets done Chapter 14-15

  15. The Conflict Process E X H I B I T 15–1 Chapter 14-15

  16. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility • Communication • Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” • Structure • Size and specialization of jobs • Authority clarity/ambiguity • Member/goal incompatibility • Leadership styles (close or participative) • Reward systems (win-lose) • Dependence/interdependence of groups • Personal Variables • Differing individual value systems • Personality types Chapter 14-15

  17. Positive Feelings Negative Emotions Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Perceived ConflictAwareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise Felt ConflictEmotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility Conflict Definition Chapter 14-15

  18. Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way • Cooperativeness • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns • Assertiveness • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns Chapter 14-15

  19. Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions E X H I B I T 15-2 Chapter 14-15

  20. Stage III: Intentions Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict Chapter 14-15

  21. Stage III: Intentions Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s (opposites)interests above his or her own Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something Chapter 14-15

  22. Stage IV: BehaviorStatements, actions and reactions Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict Chapter 14-15

  23. Conflict Management Techniques • Conflict Resolution Techniques • Problem solving • Superordinate goals create a shared goals • Expansion of resources create win-win solution • Avoidance: withdrawal • Smoothing: creating common interest • Compromise: each party given something Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 E X H I B I T 15–4 Chapter 14-15

  24. Conflict Management Techniques • Conflict Stimulation Techniques • Communication using unclear massage • Bringing in outsiders: Different values • Restructuring the organization: changing status Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 E X H I B I T 15–4 (cont’d) Chapter 14-15

  25. Stage V: Outcomes • Functional Outcomes from Conflict • Increased group performance • Improved quality of decisions • Stimulation of creativity and innovation • Encouragement of interest and curiosity • Provision of a medium for problem-solving • Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change • Creating Functional Conflict • Reward dissent (disagree) and punish conflict avoiders Chapter 14-15

  26. Stage V: Outcomes • Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict • Development of discontent • Reduced group effectiveness • Retarded (delayed) communication • Reduced group cohesiveness Chapter 14-15

  27. Negotiation Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. Chapter 14-15

  28. Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution Chapter 14-15

  29. Third-Party Negotiations Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. Chapter 14-15

  30. Third-Party Negotiations Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis Chapter 14-15