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  1. AHSGE Review

  2. Declaration of Independence Adopted July 4, 1776 Principle Author-Thomas Jefferson Legal Background Magna Carta-right of English citizens English Bill of Rights Mayflower Compact Fundamental Orders of Connecticut House of Burgesses Local Assemblies Philosophy –John Locke – natural rights (life, liberty, and property) social contract *written explanation to the world of the reasons for declaring independence

  3. Revolutionary War England versus the Thirteen Colonies (United States) Colonies won Colonies (United States) England (Britain) Generals Washington Cornwallis Advantages Cause (independence) navy military leadership supplies knowing the terrain money Weaknesses lack of supplies poor military leaders lack of money distance from government Capitals Philadelphia, PA London, England

  4. Revolutionary War Battles Lexington and Concord – first battles: known as “the Shot Heard Round the World” – Paul Revere warned that the British were coming Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) –resulted in heavy British losses and raised Colonial morale Trenton –Washington crossed Delaware in surprise winter attack on Christmas Day – led men to re-enlist Saratoga- turning point in the war- victory influenced France to send troops and navy (to openly give aide) Yorktown- final battle when Cornwallis was forced to surrender

  5. Revolutionary War Causes Taxation Without Representation Quartering of Troops Dissolving of charters and assemblies Document Declaration of Independence Patriots Sam Adams, John Adams, Patrick Henry (give me liberty or give me death), Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Thomas Jefferson Loyalists – colonists who remained loyal to England Traitor- Benedict Arnold (American General who committed treason) Foreign Aide Lafayette and Von Stueben

  6. Civil War 1861-1865 North (Union Won) Confederacy (South) Union (North) Generals Robert E. Lee Ulysses S. Grant “Stonewall” Jackson Tecumseh Sherman Presidents Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln Capitals Montgomery, AL Washington, D.C. Richmond, VA

  7. Civil War Confederacy Union Advantages Military leadership Larger Population Military tradition More resources Defending homes President Weaknesses Lack of supplies Poor military leadership Lack of population at first Lack of civilian leadership Lack of knowledge of terrain

  8. Civil War Battles Bull Run –first battle with casualties (war would be long) Shiloh- almost ruined Grant’s career Antietam –bloodiest single day battle of war Gettysburg- 3 day battle that crippled Lee’s army (turning point) Vicksburg –Union control of Mississippi River Causes of the Civil War States’ Rights Slavery Tariffs and Taxes

  9. Civil War Consequences or Results Emancipation Proclamation-only freed slaves in the Confederacy –issued by Lincoln 13th Amendment-freed slaves all over the U.S. 14th Amendment-made former slaves citizens 15th Amendment-voting rights for former slaves Black Codes-laws restricting activities of former slaves (later known as Jim Crowe Laws) ***Gettysburg Address-speech given by Lincoln to dedicate the cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield ***Free State of Winston-county in Alabama that remained loyal to the Union (North)

  10. Court Decisions • Marbury v. Madison (1803)-judical review –Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)-Congress can regulate interstate trade (elastic clause) • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)- Congress can regulate commercial activity that has both intrastate and interstate dimensions • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)-ruled in favor of Cherokee (ignored by Jackson) • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)- slaves were property and could be carried anywhere • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)- separate but equal • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)- overruled separate but equal – integrated schools • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)- must be reminded of rights • Roe v. Wade (1973)-abortion made legal

  11. Alabama History • DeSoto-1st European in Alabama • Massacre at Fort Mims-”Red Stick” Creeks attacked settlers (part of War of 1812) • Battle of Horseshoe Bend-Andrew Jackson and the Tennesse Volunteer Militia defeated the Red Stick Creeks • 1819-Alabama became a state • Trail of Tears-Indian Removal of Cherokee from Southeast to Oklahoma • Montgomery- first capital of the Confederacy • Free State of Winston-Winston County withdrew from the Confederacy • Talladega College-founded by American Missionary Association and Freedmen’s Bureau to train African-American teachers

  12. Alabama History 9. Tuskegee Institute-Booker T. Washington (founder) and George Washington Carver (agricultural experiments) 10. W.C. Handy- “Father of the Blues” 11. William Gorgas-learned the mosquitos cause yellow fever and malaria during the building of the Panama Canal 12. Zelda Fitzgerald-wife of F. Scott Fitzgerald, she was a writer and artist : the model for the 1920 flapper 13. Boll Weevils-destroyed cotton crops and forced diversification of crops in the South 14. TVA- Tennessee Valley Authority –Depression Era program that provided cheap hydoelectric power in the Southeast

  13. Alabama History 15. Tuskegee Airman-African American pilots during WWII 16. German POW camps- Aliceville, Opelika, Anniston, and Camp Rucker 17. Rosa Parks-refused to give up seat on the Montgomery bus 18. Martin Luther King Jr.-civil rights movement (Birmingham Jail and Selma) 19. Helen Keller-blind and deaf- inspirational speaker 20. Harper Lee- wrote To Kill a Mockingbird