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  1. AHSGE Social Studies Review Part III

  2. Native Americans • Reservations – Land set aside for Indians (Oklahoma). • Battle of Little Big Horn – George Armstrong Custer and ALL of his men were massacred by the Sioux Indians. • Battle at Wounded Knee – Final Indian battle where the Lakota Sioux were defeated. • Dawes Act – Allotted 160 acres of land to Native Americans (did away with Reservations). This was an attempt to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream society (it failed).

  3. Big Business • Cornelius Vanderbilt – Great railroad builder • John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil; created a monopoly (no competition; complete control) in this industry. • Andrew Carnegie – Made a fortune in the steel business; built libraries (Gospel of Wealth). • They were all considered robberbarons (businessmen and bankers who dominated their respective industries and amassed a fortune.$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

  4. Industrialization • Bessemer Process – This is a way of mass producing cheap steel (Alabama). • Steel Plow – Cut through sod (tough soil); invented by John Deere. • Windmills – These were used to pump water to the surface from deep wells. • Barbed Wire – Allowed for hundreds of square miles to be fenced in cheaply and easily; invented by Joseph Glidden.

  5. Industrialization • Railroads – Led to the development of the West (especially when the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869). • The Grange – This was the first farm organization (it came after railroads). • Telephone – Invented by Alexander Graham Bell.

  6. Alabama Connection • Populist Party – Founded in 1892. Main support came from workers (disappeared in 1897). It was strong in Alabama. • Black Belt – Area of black, fertile soil. Excellent for growing cotton. • Boll Weevil – Insect that destroyed cotton, forcing Alabama farmers to diversify (grow different crops).

  7. Alabama Connection • Birmingham – Iron and steel center of Alabama. • Mobile – Shipping center of Alabama.

  8. Unions & Immigration • American Federation of Labor (AFL) – Famous labor union headed by Samuel Gompers. • Chinese Exclusion Act – Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens.

  9. Urban Politics • Boss Tweed – Famous big city boss. He stole hundreds of millions of dollars from New York City (Leader of the political machine – TammanyHall). His corruption led him to prison.

  10. Progressivism • Progressivism – Social and political movement to make society better. • Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote about the evils of society. • Upton Sinclair – The most famous muckraker. • Ida Tarbell – Wrote about the abuse of the Standard Oil Company.

  11. Progressivism • Booker T. Washington – He founded Tuskegee Institute (stressed work and education). He favored segregation. • George Washington Carver – Did work at Tuskegee with the peanut and sweet potato. • W.E.B. DuBois – He was the founder of the NAACP in 1909 (Niagara Movement).

  12. Progressivism • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – The Supreme Court upheld the Louisiana case saying that separate but equal is ok; legalized segregation. • Alabama Constitution of 1901 – Created literacy tests and poll taxes. Tried to keep African Americans from voting (kept the Democrats in power).

  13. Progressivism • Theodore Roosevelt – (Square Deal) He fought for conservation and monopolies (through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act). • William Howard Taft – Elected in 1908, he later became the Chief Justice for the Supreme Court. • Woodrow Wilson – Elected in 1912 and 1916. He was President during World War I. His program was called New Freedom. Included the Federal Trade Commission and the Federal Reserve System.

  14. Imperialism • Imperialism – Taking over other countries (Colonies). • Hawaii – We took over Hawaii in 1898 (Queen Liliuokalani). • Cuba – We went to war with Spain over Cuba. Two main causes: a) explosion of the USS Maine and b) yellow journalism. Hearst and Pulitizer were 2 newspaper publishers.

  15. New American Diplomacy • Theodore Roosevelt – Led the charge of Rough Riders up San Juan Hill. • Open Door Policy – Equal trading rights with China (Secretary of State John Hay). • Panama Canal – Built to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. • William C. Gorgas – Helped eradicate yellow fever in Panama.

  16. World War I • Long term causes: a) nationalism, b) militarism, c) imperialism, and d) alliance systems • The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand is the immediate spark that starts the war. • Battlefront: a) trenches, b) no man’s land, c) machine guns, and d) airplanes and tanks – Pilots or Aces fought dogfights.

  17. World War I • U.S. Causes for entry into the war: • a) the sinking of the Lusitania (128 U.S. dead, May 15, 1915). • b) the ZimmermanNote – Germany attempted to bribe Mexico into entering the war against the U.S. • c) German U-boats started sinking U.S. Ships. • d) Russia became a Democracy. • e) financial

  18. World War I • WWI Allies – Great Britain, France, Russia, and the United States. • WWI Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire. • November 11, 1918, WWI ended with an armistice (agreement to stop fighting). {Eleventh month, eleventh day, eleventh hour}

  19. World War I • The Treaty of Versailles ended WWI. Germany was blamed for the war and punished severely. • The U.S. never signed the Treaty of Versailles nor did we join the League of Nations (an organization created to keep peace). • The U.S. favored isolationism (avoiding involvement in world affairs.