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開発環境工学概論( 6 ). 2006 年 5 月 24 日. Course Outline. Introduction Upstream Operations  (上流部門操業) Exploration  (探鉱) Reservoir Characterization  (モデル化) Reservoir Management  (油ガス層管理) CO 2 Sequestration  ( CO 2 地下固定). Climate Change: Global. 1900 年以降, 0.6℃ 上昇.

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course outline

Course Outline

  • Introduction
  • Upstream Operations (上流部門操業)
  • Exploration (探鉱)
  • Reservoir Characterization (モデル化)
  • Reservoir Management (油ガス層管理)
  • CO2 Sequestration (CO2地下固定)
climate change global
Climate Change: Global

1900年以降,0.6℃上昇

level of scientific understanding
Level of Scientific Understanding 気象変動要因の科学的解明度

煙霧質

対流圏オゾン

太陽活動

飛行機雲

巻雲

成層圏オゾン

反射度

slide6
世界の部門別CO2排出量割合

2100年の予測:

現在の374 ppmから500~1000 ppmに上昇, 2~4.5 ℃ の上昇

人間の環境適応性,

石炭ガス化,コールベッドメタン技術,

長期的対策:化石燃料消費を削減

短期的対策:エネルギー効率の改善,

CO2捕集・固定

co 2 capture project
CO2 Capture Project

Separation Methods

• Chemical Absorption

• Membrane Filtering

capacity and costs at oil gas fields
Capacity and Costs at Oil/Gas Fields

155 provinces

油価:$15/bbl を仮定

油層では油生産の収入があるが、ガス層ではない。

co 2 processing storage technology
CO2 Processing & Storage Technology

• Characterization

• Well drilling

• Facility designing

• Well & field monitoring

petroleum technology relevant to co 2 sequestration
Petroleum Technology Relevant to CO2 Sequestration

• CO2攻法

CO2精製・圧入,油層選別,

 圧入計画,油層シミュレーション,

 観測井,トレーサー,4D震探

• ガス地下貯蔵

 貯留層管理・圧入計画,

 スリムホール観測井

• 天然CO2生産

CO2の長期的影響評価,

 モニタリング,耐腐食性機器

co 2 phase diagram
CO2 Phase Diagram

Critical Point 臨界点:

Tc = 31 °C

pc = 73.8 bar (1,070.4 psi)

For CO2 sequestration at super-critical conditions, storage depths need to be 600 m or deeper.

co 2 capture storage sleipner gas field north sea
CO2 Capture & StorageSleipner Gas Field, North Sea

9 % CO2 in natural gas is separated, and injected into the shallower formation of capacity 600 billion tons.

pushdown effects due to co 2
Pushdown Effects due to CO2

Wave velocity is reduced through CO2 storage interval.

CO2 is distributed as thin layers of high concentration and dispersed CO2.

Velocity pushdown due to thin layers only cannot model the observed pushdown.

co 2 flooding weyburn field canada
CO2 FloodingWeyburn Field, Canada

Aquifer: permeable

Aquitard: semi-permeable

weyburn field production
Weyburn Field Production

22 million tons CO2 will be stored in Weyburn field over the project life.

simulation results at 25 years injection
Simulation Results at 25 years Injection

(a) Gas Saturation

(b) CO2 mole fraction in aqueous phase

(c) Aqueous phase density (kg/m3)

(d) pH

(e) Dissolved Calcite (mol/m3)

(f) Calcite precipitation (mol/m3)

simulation results after 200 years
Simulation Results after 200 years

(a) Gas Saturation

(b) CO2 mole fraction in aqueous phase

(c) Aqueous phase density (kg/m3)

(d) pH

(e) Dissolved Calcite (mol/m3)

(f) Calcite precipitation (mol/m3)

simulation results after 500 years
Simulation Results after 500 years

(a) Gas Saturation

(b) CO2 mole fraction in aqueous phase

(c) Aqueous phase density (kg/m3)

(d) pH

(e) Dissolved Calcite (mol/m3)

(f) Calcite precipitation (mol/m3)

gas saturation aqueous co 2 mole fraction
Gas Saturation & Aqueous CO2 Mole Fraction

(a) Gas saturation at 25 yrs

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

(a) Aqueous CO2 mole fraction at 25 yrs

aqueous phase density ph
Aqueous Phase Density & pH

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

  • Aqueous phase density at 25 yrs

(a) pH at 25 yrs

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

dissolved calcite precipitated calcite
Dissolved Calcite & Precipitated Calcite

(a) Dissolved calcite at 25 yrs

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

(a) Precipitated calcite at 25 yrs

(b) After 200 years

(c) After 500 years

slide25
枯渇油ガス田利用の問題点
  • CO2捕集コスト
  • 貯留層キャラクタリゼーションの不完全性

   ・ 1,000年~1,000,000年のスケール 

   ・ 帽岩の特性,CO2・岩石・流体の反応

  • モニタリング,検証

   ・ 地化学トレーサ,シミュレーション,観測井,4D震探

  • CO2排出権取引

   ・ 世界的に機能する取引システムの導入

  • 油増産とCO2保留の矛盾