Portable Computing Chapter 19
Overview • In this chapter, you will learn to • Describe the many types of portable computing devices available • Enhance and upgrade portable computers • Manage and maintain portable computers • Troubleshoot portable computers
Essentials CompTIA A+Essentials Getting the Right Sound Card Portable Computing Devices
LCD Screens • Major contributor to cost • Most range from 12 inch to 17 inch • Aspect ratio changing from 4:3 standard • For comparison, 16:9 is standard for widescreen • 16:10 is the standard for 17-inch LCD screen
LCD Screens • Two types of finishes • Matte • Traditional standard • Reduces glare • Washes out a lot in bright light • Hopeless in bright daylight • High Gloss • Relatively new • Offers sharper contrast, richer colors and wider viewing angles
Desktop Replacements • Typical laptops can function as a fully standalone PC • Can be used as a desktop replacement • Input devices • Trackballs on early laptops • IBM’s TrackPoint—pencil eraser–sized joystick in the middle of the keyboard • Touchpads
Desktop Extenders • Desktop extenders are portable devices • Not intended to take the place of a desktop • Think of them as a smaller, lighter, less-powerful laptop for less intensive use
PDAs • Personal digital assistants (PDAs) • Tiny, handheld portable computing devices • Address book, personal notes, appointments, word processors, image viewers • Often use handwriting recognition with a pen-style stylus for pen-based computing • Use specialized OS such as Windows CE, PocketPC, PalmOS, and Linux • Made by Palm, Sony, Toshiba, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, and other companies
HotSync Can synchronize data between PDA and office PC PalmOS calls it HotSync Beaming PDAs typically have IR ports Can transfer data (beam) between PDAs PDA Memory Internal flash ROM of 1 MB or more CompactFlash cards that are removable and upgradeable for removable storage needs PDA Features
Tablet PCs • Combines handwriting benefits of PDAs with power of traditional laptops • Use a stylus to write • Applications can use digital ink to capture pen strokes
Test Questions • What is the main input device for a PDA? • Stylus • Keyboard • Finger • A Hammer Answer: A – Stylus is the main type of input device for a PDAs.
Test Questions 2. You buy a widescreen laptop that has a native resolution of 1920 x 1200 what video mode does it support? • XGA • SXGA • PGA • WUXGA Answer: D – WUXGA’s native resolution is 1920 x 1200. Remember the W indicates widescreen.
IT Technician CompTIA A+Technician Enhance and Upgrade the Portable PC
PC Cards • PC Cards are commonly known as the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) • Hot-swappable devices • Easy to use, inexpensive, and convenient
PC Cards • Parallel PC Cards • 16-bit or CardBus (32-bit 3.3V cards) • Three sizes: Type I (thinnest), II, and III (thickest) • Cards can have one or many functions • ExpressCard • High-performance serial version • Can connect to USB 2.0 slot (480 Mbps) or PCIe (2.5 Gbps)
PC Cards • Two levels of software drivers • Socket services • Device drivers that enable the system to detect when a PC Card is inserted or removed • Provide necessary I/O to the device • Standardized and handled by the system BIOS • Card services • Recognize the function of a particular PC Card and provide the specialized drivers required to make the card work • Handled by Windows • Accessed via PCMCIA option in Control Panel
Test Question • If you have one type III pc card slot which of the following will fit? • One type III and two type II • One type III, two type II, and three type I • One type III • Two type II and three type I Answer: A- One type III and two type II. Remember, type I pc cards are significantly different than type II and III.
Limited-Function Ports • All portable PCs and many PDAs come with a variety of ports • VGA connection for hooking up an external monitor • PS/2 port for an external keyboard or mouse • Built-in NICs and modems for network support • All of these work the same as in desktop PCs • Video ports • External monitor, projector,or a combination of both • Speaker ports • Extra function key
General-Purpose Ports • Legacy ports • PS/2, RS-232 • USB and FireWire • Work same as in PC • Port replicators • Plug into a single port • Offer common PC ports such as serial, parallel, network, and PS/2
Docking Stations • Gives laptops access to PC resources • Large monitors, regular mice, network connections, and full-size keyboards • Provides an easy way to take your laptop in and out of the office • Basically a port replicator with extra features such as a DVD drive or PC Card slots
Replacing RAM • No standard method • You usually have to unscrew or pop open a panel on the underside of the portable
Shared Memory • Reduces cost of video cards • Reduces amount of memory on the video card • Shared memory technologies • TurboCache (NVIDIA) • HyperMemory (ATI) • System RAM will report less RAM available • Not shared as much as taken from OS • Once taken, OS no longer has access to the RAM
The Modular Laptop • Common components that can be replaced or upgraded in a portable PC • Hard drives • 2.5-inch ATA drives most common • Cable select often required • Otherwise the same as regular 3.5-inch drives • Modular CPUs • Just replace with a newer module from Intel or AMD • Video cards • Least standardized
The Modular Laptop • Common components that can be replaced or upgraded in a portable PC • Modular Drives • CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, CD-R/W, hard drives • Mobile NICs and Mini PCI • Most laptops have dial-up modems and Ethernet • Many also come with integrated wireless networking support • Many devices can be toggled on and off with key combinations such as FN-F2
Test Question • A customer states that only half of their keyboard will type it’s assigned letters and when they use the right half of the keyboard only numbers appear. What is the first step the technician should take? • Check Numlock and Function key • Replace keyboard • Plug in external keyboard • Inform customer they need to replace laptop Answer: A- always check the Numlock and Function key first. Remember most laptops do not have their own number pad.
Test Question • A customer states that their laptop keyboard does not seem to be working at all. What is the first step the technician should take? • Replace keyboard • Plug in external keyboard • Replace Laptop • Leave the job Answer: B- By using an external keyboard a technician can pinpoint if the problem lies within the laptop’s keyboard.
Maintenance • Everything you normally do to maintain a PC applies to portable PCs • Windows patches and Service Packs • Upgrading drivers • CHKDSK • ScanDisk • Defragment • Disk Cleanup
Batteries • Three types of commonly used batteries • Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) • Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) • Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion)
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries • Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries • First batteries commonly used in mobile PCs • Battery memory is the tendency of a Ni-Cd battery to lose a significant amount of its recharge ability • Conditioning charge could sometimes resolve battery memory problem • At best, can only be recharged about 1000 times • Toxic—dispose of at recycling centers
Nickel Metal Hydride • Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries • Next generation of mobile PC batteries • Less susceptible to memory problems and last longer between recharges • Still susceptible to heat • Popular replacement for Ni-Cd systems
Lithium Ion • Lithium Ion batteries • Most common type of battery used today • Powerful • Completely immune to memory problems • Built-in circuitry to prevent accidental overcharging
Other Portable Power Sources • Smart batteries • Tell the computer when they need to be charged, conditioned, or replaced • Fuel cells • Promising new technology that could power a laptop for up to 40 hours before refilling • Hasn’t yet reached the consumer market
Battery Maintenance • Batteries should be stored in a cool place • Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries should be conditioned by using a special charger • Battery contacts should be kept clean using a little alcohol or dry cloth • Used or old batteries should be recycled
Test Question • Which of the following methods with be recommending for the disposal of a computing battery? • Throw in the trash • Burn it • Contact local authorities for guidelines on how to properly dispose of it • Put it in the recycling bin Answer: C- An individual should always consult local authorities for the proper disposal of batteries.
Power Management • Power management goals • Shut down unused devices selectively • Define a maximum period of inactivity • Shut down the entire system during longer periods of inactivity • Ready to restart if triggered by a wake-up event • Sensitive to potential hazards like shutting down the hard drive in the middle of a write operation • Keep the system cost about the same
System Management Mode • System Management Mode (SMM) • Set of features that enables the CPU to slow down or stop its clock without deleting information • Stops the CPU and all of the peripherals • Requires a specialized BIOS and OS • To further power management capabilities, Intel introduced • Advanced Power Management (APM) in 1992 • Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) in 1996
Requirements for APM/ACPI • APM and ACPI require the following in order to function properly • An SMM-capable CPU • APM-compliant BIOS • Devices that will accept being shut off (“Energy Star”) • A system OS that knows how to request the shutdown of a particular device
APM/ACPI Levels • Full On • No power management—everything running • APM Enabled • CPU and RAM running at full power • Unused devices may or may not be shut down • APM Standby • CPU is stopped (can easily be restarted) • RAM still stores all the programs • All peripherals are shut down • APM Suspend • Everything is shut down or at its lowest power-consumption • Hibernation (stores everything in RAM on the hard drive before powering down)
CMOS settings Windows Overrides CMOS settings Display applet in Control Panel Settings Advanced Monitor tab Power Management applet in Control Panel APM/ACPI Configuration
Cleaning Use a screen cleaner to clean the LCD screen (not a glass cleaner) Use compressed air to clean out the keyboard and PC Card sockets Heat Use power management Keep air space between the bottom of the laptop and the surface it sits on Don’t use a keyboard protector Listen for fan running a lot or stopping Cleaning & Heat
Protect the Machine • Protect your investment with best practices • Tripping Watch the power cord • Storage Protect from damage and dirt • Travel Remember foreign power is 230 V • Shipping Protect from damage and theft • Security Protect from theft
Troubleshooting • Laptop won’t power on • Verify the outlet is good • Verify the adapter is good • Remove all peripherals • Screen doesn’t come on properly • Make sure the display is on • Press FN key combination to activate the screen • Wireless networking doesn’t work • Check for physical or software switch to turn it on • Ensure you’re in range
Troubleshooting • Handwriting is not recognized • May need to retrain the digitizer • Keypad doesn’t work • Probably unseated keypad connector • Check manufacturer’s disassembly procedures • Touchpad doesn’t work • Clean with compressed air • May need to reconfigure touchpad driver
Beyond A+ • Intel’s Centrino Technology • Extremely low power • Fast CPUs • Integrated wireless networking • Origami—Ultra-Mobile PCs (UMPC) • Small form factor tablet PC • Runs full-fledged OS such asWindows XP or Vista