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Training Agenda. Virtual LANs Routing DHCP Relay Group Mobility, IP Multicast IP & IPX Filtering OmniChannel, Gigabit Case Study. Flat networks don’t scale. Networks based on LAN switches are flat networks. Flat, bridged network. Virtual LAN. VLANs.

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training agenda

TrainingAgenda

Virtual LANs

Routing

DHCP Relay

Group Mobility, IP Multicast

IP & IPX Filtering

OmniChannel, Gigabit

Case Study

slide2

Flat networks don’t scale

  • Networks based on LAN switches are flat networks

Flat, bridged network

vlans
VLANs
  • A VLAN is a collection of users contained in a broadcast domain
    • VLANs allow for better isolation of broadcast traffic
    • enrollment in VLANs can be simplified with AutoTracker
    • VLANs can extend over the entire enterprise
    • VLANs can work with DHCP
    • VLANs can be “trunked” across high-speed links
    • stations join VLANs by matching policies
      • policies matching is performed on the switch
    • VLANs can span across all media interfaces
segmentation is required
Segmentation is required
  • Networks must be segmented
  • But what are these segments?

Segment 2

Segment 4

Segment 1

Segment 3

vlans provide segmentation
VLANs provide segmentation
  • Switch-centric model with VLANs
    • the routing function provides logical connectivity between the VLANs
policy based vlans
VLANs

more flexible and easier to manage

policies applied uniformly to all devices

device can meet more than one policy, belong to more than one VLAN

devices stay in VLAN even when moved

Policy-based VLANs

198.403.107.XXX

0A032133DDD3

198.403.107.XXX

198.403.107.XXX

02070118A92B

020701A3EF1A

198.206.181.XXX

subnet based vlans

Subnet 2

Subnet 4

Subnet 1

Subnet 3

Subnet-based VLANs
  • One of the most useful VLAN types is the “Layer 3 address-based VLAN”
    • VLAN membership based on layer 3 address (e.g., subnet)
summary vlan standards update
Summary: VLAN standards update
  • VLANS are required in large switched networks
  • VLAN frame tagging may be accomplished with:
    • LAN Emulation
    • 802.10 (to some routers over some media)
    • vendor proprietary (oops, pre-standard)
    • 802.1q
      • this is the standard being developed by IEEE 802.1 for VLAN frame tagging, expected ratification Q3/97
  • VLANs also play an important role in layer 3 switching (more later)
routing
Routing
  • VLANs (and ELANs) necessitate routing

VLAN 2

VLAN 4

VLAN 1

VLAN 3

where do routers go anyway
Where do routers go, anyway?
  • Traditional hub / router architecture
    • routers form the backbone

H

H

H

where do routers go anyway1
Where do routers go, anyway?
  • Replace hubs with LAN switches
    • routers still form the backbone

H

H

H

where do routers go anyway2
Where do routers go, anyway?
  • But with servers increasingly being centralized…

H

H

H

where do routers go anyway3
Where do routers go, anyway?
  • …are we really improving performance?

Are these LAN switches

really doing anything?

H

H

H

No, the routers are

in the way

where do routers go anyway4
Where do routers go, anyway?
  • A fully switched network is required
    • but, since VLANs (or ELANs) are required, so is routing

H

H

H

routing in a switched network

VLAN 1

VLAN 3

Routing in a switched network
  • Option 1: use routers
    • “one-armed router”

VLAN 2

802.1q, LANE 1.0, 802.10or separate connections

routing in a switched network1

VLAN 1

VLAN 3

Routing in a switched network
  • Option 2: embed routing in LAN or ATM switch

VLAN 2

routing in a switched network2

VLAN 1

VLAN 3

Routing in a switched network
  • Option 3: put routing in hardware
    • packet-by-packet layer 3 switching

VLAN 2

summary routing
Summary: routing
  • Routing is required in any large data network
  • The key question faced by many organizations today is what to do with existing routers
    • routers can continue to be used to forward traffic between layer 2 domains (VLANs, ELANs)
      • vastly fewer are required
    • routing can be performed by LAN / ATM switches
dhcp relay

Port Policies

MAC address Policies

IP Subnet Policies

IPX Subnet Policies

Protocol Type Policies

Multicast Policies

Authenticated User Policies

DHCP Port Policies

DHCP MAC Policies

DHCP relay
  • The UDP Relay feature provides a mechanism for forwarding UDP / IP broadcast packets between VLANs
  • Useful for DHCP in VLANs
dhcp relay with external router
DHCP relay with external router

130.0.0.11

130.0.0.12

BOOTP Relay

OmniSwitch

Port 1

Port 2

125.0.0.1

Group 1

130.0.0.10

125.0.0.3

130.0.0.13

DHCP Server

125.0.0.2

130.0.0.14

130.0.0.15

dhcp with internal router

Router

DHCP with internal router

BOOTP Relay

125.0.0.21

130.0.0.21

125.0.0.1

Group 2

Group 3

130.0.0.13

DHCP Server

125.0.0.2

130.0.0.14

130.0.0.15

group mobility details
Group mobility details
  • AutoTracker supports 96 Groups with 32 VLANs / group
  • Group mobility adds a new capability to move between groups, rather than only within VLANs
  • Groups are viewed as VLANs, so now we can configure up to 500 VLANs (really groups) in the OmniSwitch
    • if there are no users active on the VLAN group then the group is inactive
    • when a user attaches and matches the policies, the group becomes active
group mobility details1
Group mobility details
  • Group mobility also provides dynamic auto-activation of LAN Emulation clients
    • saves switch resources
    • saves network resources
    • scalable for large networks
    • a group can have an elan name attribute associated with it, so when a group becomes active the associated LEC attaches to the ELAN
how does this all work
How does this all work?
  • The default group (Group #1) is used as a holding group for all ports participating in group mobility
    • AutoTracker rules operates the same; just use a group other than default Group #1 for AutoTracker if you are also using group mobility
    • all ports on the default group are candidates to move to one of the configured mobile groups
    • groups now have a new group mobility flag
    • if this flag is set the group is participating in group mobility and policies are applied at the group level
group mobility
Group mobility

When a new user comes on-line,

AutoTracker observes his traffic and

applies it to policies of defined

groups.

OmniSwitch

AutoTracker

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility1
Group mobility

OmniSwitch

AutoTracker

The required Group

is created.

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility2
Group mobility

OmniSwitch

The switch then joins

the ELAN mapped to

that Group.

AutoTracker

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility3
Group mobility

Traffic matching on

another Group is

observed.

OmniSwitch

AutoTracker

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility4
Group mobility

The required ELAN

is joined.

OmniSwitch

AutoTracker

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility5
Group mobility

Group Mobility works with

shared media hubs since

AutoTracker provides

Group mapping for both

Ports and MACs.

OmniSwitch

AutoTracker

HUB

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

ELAN

LANE 1.0

Backbone

group mobility6
Group mobility
  • AutoTracker rules without group mobility; restricts any port to join only one of 32 VLANS without port reassignments
    • group mobility expands that to 500 VLANs (groups)
    • a user can belong to any of 500 groups, and can belong to multiple groups at the same time
  • Group mobility allows users with multiple stacks to join multiple groups using the same AutoTracker policies
    • the first policy match becomes the spanning tree master
    • additional policy matches do not generate BPDUs
group mobility example
Group mobility example

Server

ATM SWITCH

8 OC-12

16 LEC / interface

128 Subnets

4 OC-3

64 LECS

4 OC-3

64 LECS

A user can join any of 64 subnets dynamically

what is multicast traffic
What is multicast traffic?
  • Similar to broadcast traffic
  • It’s like selective broadcast
  • Only those that request the traffic get it
  • Allows a one to many communication rather than one to one
multicast versus unicast
Multicast versus unicast
  • unicast sends one packet per destination
  • multicast sends one packet for many destinations

Unicast

Multicast

why is multicast so great
Why is multicast so great?
  • It conserves bandwidth
  • Uses for multicast:
    • resource discovery (OSPF, RIP2, Bootp)
    • multipoint file transfer (Starburst Com.)
    • conferencing: many to many (CuSeeMe)
    • video netcasting (Precept Software IPTV)
    • redundant systems (parallel databases)
    • battlefield simulations (parallel processing)
    • information distribution in data warehousing
what is multicast routing
What is multicast routing?
  • Details:
    • multicast router knows who wants traffic
    • finds out who is sending the traffic
    • delivers traffic only to those who want it
    • routers communicate with each other and users to gather the information
    • once information is shared, the traffic is sent where it needs to go
protocols implemented
Protocols implemented
  • Most commonly used protocols:
    • IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
      • RFC 1112 (V2 described in draft)
    • DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol)
      • RFC 1075 (v3 described in draft)
      • used between routers to exchange multicast route information
  • Internet’s MBONE built using these protocols
dvmrp routing tree
DVMRP routing tree

Group 1 Source

Group 1 membership

Group 1 membership

dvmrp tree after pruning
DVMRP tree after pruning

Group 1 Source

Group 1 membership

Group 1 membership

why is ipms so much better
IPMS (IP Multicast Switching):

intercepts IGMP packets to track membership by SVPN (source virtual port number), rather than by network

client application requests membership in a multicast group; only those members will receive the multicast traffic

Traffic is controlled by port rather than by network

Performance significantly improved because forwarding decision is made by network interface

All port forwarding lists are established dynamically; no configuration required

Co-exists with existing multicast VLANs

Why is IPMS so much better?
triggered ipx support
Triggered IPX support
  • RFC 2091:
    • only changed info, rather than all info, is sent
    • receiver is able to apply changes immediately
    • reduced routing traffic and uses less memory
    • no periodic broadcasts of “redundant” information
ip rip filters
IP RIP filters
  • RIP input filters
    • control which networks are allowed into the routing table when IP RIPs are received
  • RIP output filters
    • control the list of networks included in routing updates sent out an interface; this controls which networks the router advertises in its IP RIP updates
ipx watchdog spoofing
IPX Watchdog spoofing
  • Why?
    • to prevent IPX Watchdog packets from initiating connections on dial-on-demand links when no other data is being sent
  • This feature will allow the Xylan router to respond to a server’s Watchdog requests on behalf of a remote client.
    • the Watchdog query packet will never cross the WAN link if IPX Watchdog spoofing is enabled
netware serialization packet filters
NetWare Serialization packet filters
  • NetWare Serialization packet filtering:
    • If serialization packet filtering is enabled on a WAN interface, when the router receives a serialization packet, it will drop the packet instead of activating a dial-up link
    • NetWare Serialization packets will never cross a WAN link which has filtering enabled
  • There is one drawback:
    • this can allow users to bypass Novell’s licensing scheme
omnichannel features and benefits
Aggregation of bandwidth

OmniChannel allows up to 4 switch ports to be aggregated together as one high-speed pipe

Existing technology

uses the same existing networking technologies available today, such as Fast Ethernet

Load balancing

evenly distributes network data between all of the aggregated links

Scalability

OmniChannel backbones easily scale from 100 Mbps to 800 Mbps

OmniChannel features and benefits
omnichannel2
How OmniChannel works

OmniChannel supports load balancing, flooding, spanning tree BPDUs, and a failed link

Load balancing

incoming packets are assigned in a round-robin fashion to one OmniChannel link, offering even distribution of the traffic over each link

One high-speed pipe

a group of OmniChannel links behaves exactly as a single high-speed link

Resiliency

sub-second recovery in the event of a link failure

OmniChannel
omnichannel3
OmniChannel
  • High-speed backbone/server solution
    • The following application uses two 400 Mbps OmniChannel links into a centralized OmniSwitch; the central OmniSwitch then connects to a Sun server at 800 Mbps
omnichannel4
OmniChannel
  • Resilient backbone solutions
    • this application uses multiple paths from Switch A to Switch B for a total of 800 Mbps; an alternate path is used for two of the backbone links to protect the backbone from a single catastrophic event, such as a backhoe break, from bringing down the backbone between Switches A and B