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Toward an Integrated Identity Matrix (IIM) Theory – Proposals for a Dynamic Cultural Identity Framework. by Steve J Kulich Assisted by Zhang Shutian Shanghai International Studies University. A Key SISU SII Research Focus:. Study the Key Indicators of Deep Culture Values Identity

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toward an integrated identity matrix iim theory proposals for a dynamic cultural identity framework

Toward an Integrated Identity Matrix (IIM) Theory –Proposals for a Dynamic Cultural Identity Framework

by Steve J Kulich

Assisted by Zhang Shutian

Shanghai International Studies University

a key sisu sii research focus
A Key SISU SII Research Focus:

Study the Key Indicators of Deep Culture

  • Values
  • Identity
  • World-View, Beliefs, Social Axioms
  • What happens to these in shifts, transitions? What internal or external conflicts occur?
  • How is our social psychology influenced?
recommendation expand your understanding of ic psychology
Recommendation: Expand Your Understanding of IC Psychology
  • Yan Wenhua’s

严文华 new book:

  • Linking Intercultural Communication & Psychology + Cases
  • ISBN:7807451408
social cultural psychology as a basis exploring multiple domains of culture

Cognitive Concept

Idea Expected

(often Verbal)

Expressed Behavior

Action Expected

(often Nonverbal)

Affective Response

Emotional Expectation

(internally or expressed)

Social/Cultural Psychology as a Basis – Exploring Multiple Domains of Culture

Identity

Decision-making Desired Outcomes

Acceptable vs. Actual

Spirit/Soul Beliefs

one starting point in communication how do we perceive others
One starting point in communication –How do we perceive others?
  • Who am I? Who are You?

And what are we connected to?

social penetration deepening identity disclosure
Social Penetration:Deepening Identity Disclosure
  • Public, Visible, Open
  • Private/Personal, Invisible, Accessible only by Verbal Communication
  • Psychological/Deep Personality
  • Psyche, Mysterious, Contradictory, Unknown often even to ourselves
beyond individualism collectivism to identities in self construals markus kitayama 1991
Beyond Individualism-Collectivism- to Identities in Self Construals(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)

Interdependent Self

Mother

Father

x Self

x x

x

x

x

x

x

Sibling

x x

x

x

xx

Friend

Co-worker

past theoretical premises hierarchies
Past Theoretical Premises - Hierarchies:
  • Primary identitiesshould be considered those for which an individual would sacrifice most of his time, most of his money, and if need be, his life.
  • Secondary identitiesare those for which the individual would sacrifice only some of his time and money.
  • For a tertiary identity, the individual would be willing to sacrifice only some of his time and perhaps a little money.

——Richard Cottam, from Singer’s book “Intercultural Communication: A Perceptual Approach”

expanding multiple dimensions of identities
Expanding Multiple Dimensions of Identities
  • Traditional and Confucius vs. Modern
  • Collectivist vs. Individualistic
  • Personal vs. Social
  • Mainstream vs. Unconventional
  • Familial Ideologies vs. Individual Pursuits

…………..

zhang kulich in wu 2008 questionnaire design
Zhang & Kulich (in Wu, 2008) Questionnaire Design

Originally…..

  • Gudykunst’s tri-level categorization (1994)
  • Ting-Toomey’s (1999) primary identities from identity negotiation perspective
  • Hofstede’s (1991) layers of culture.

Later…..

  • Singer’s (1987) personal, group and national cultures
  • Anne Byrne’s (2003) model of researching woman’s self and social identity
  • Zygmunt Bauman’s (2001) analysis of individualization
  • Simon Leys’s (1997) interpretation of Confucius identity
  • Elise Boulding’s species identity.
pilot study the two 2004 samples
Pilot Study: the two 2004 Samples

3rd Year Undergraduates

Continuing Education Students

Number=70

Average age= 21

SD=0.6

Number=70

Average age= 28

SD=4.96

slide14

Comparison among the three rankings (continuing education students 2004)Frequency Top 10 Mean Top 20 SD Lowest 20

slide15

Continuing education students 2004

Undergraduates 2004

Stable Chinese Identities

Weighted Average Ranking

no clear cut distinction between three levels of identities in the top 10 ranking

family,

moral,

nationality,

marital,

parental

geographic place, nationality

education gender

personality specialty

No clear-cut distinction between three levels of Identities in the Top 10 Ranking

Traditional family-oriented collectivism

Individual and modern identities

Social and ethnic identities

In dynamic motion between different dimensions

static domains of identity seem to be only part of the picture
Static domains of identity seem to be only part of the picture…

Whether that which we cannot chose…

  • Race/ethnicity
  • Religion/ideology
  • Family name/siblings/hereditary
  • Geographic origin/locational

To that which we might influence…

  • Language/accent (linguistic)
  • Career/vocational (professional)…
slide18

Considering Identity & Context –

What are my Cultural Influences?

My Culture

Me

My Group

what about identity in transition
What about “Identity” in Transition?

In a time of great cultural change in the Roman Empire, with a new culture emerging:

  • “The old labels we once used to identify ourselves – labels like Jew or Greek, slave or free – are no longer useful. We need something larger and more comprehensive.”
      • Paul of Tarsus, writing to Christians in Corinth (from the Message translation)
considering metaphors of identity the playing field of interaction

Considering Metaphors of Identity – The Playing Field of Interaction

How are Context/Situation & Identity Related?

Mutually Influencing?

gudykunst 2005 presenting varied perspectives can they be integrated
Gudykunst 2005 - Presenting Varied Perspectives – Can they be integrated?
  • A Communication Theory of Identity (Hecht et al)
  • Identity Negotiation Theory (Ting-Toomey)
  • Identity Management Theory (Imahori & Cupach)
  • Theorizing Cultural Identifications (Collier)
proposed integrated identity matrix
Proposed Integrated Identity Matrix

We propose that…

“Individuals in any social interaction (or anti-social reaction)…

  • are actually operating with (hiding or to some degree enacting)
  • multiple identity sets (some congruous or related, but others contradictory)
  • on a multi-level, multi-dimensional field (complex scaled options),
proposed identity matrix gambits
Proposed Identity Matrix Gambits

and are…

  • playing a gambit between a range of
    • social choices and
    • contextual ascriptions,
  • balancing individual- and social-level influences with
    • cognitive tensions
    • affective meanings
    • behavioral risk and outcomes.”

Building on Hecht et. al’s CTI (2005)

applying the integrated identity matrix model
Applying the Integrated Identity Matrix Model

Will seek to further build, test it…

  • Analyze 10 years of “emic” data (“my most important identities”)

(“my cultural story”/Being Chinese)

  • And “etic” data (Zhang’s lists)
  • Consider the link to our decade of values data (lists, proverbs, heroes)
learning from with our ma students
Learning from/with our MA students
  • 赵冰霞 Zhao Bingxia (2004), Gender identity in Shanghai university students.
  • 张书田 Zhang Shutian (2005), Toward a holistic theory of identity ranking: Application & comparisons between Chinese, Algerians and American young adults.
  • 王晓玲 Wang Shaoling (2007). The influence of ethnic identity and intergroup contact on anxiety/uncertainty management and communication satisfaction: A study of 3 ethnic groups at a university for minorities.
  • 迪拉热。吐尔地 Dillara Tur’di (2007). Bilingual education and intercultural communication in Xinjiang, China (Uighur Identity).
8 of 84 thesis topics so far re identity
8 of 84 thesis topics so far Re: Identity
  • 陈素可 Chen Suke (2007). A quantitative study of Shanghai post-1980's rural migrant workers' ego-centered social network and IC adjustment in Shanghai, China
  • 陈莎莎 Chen Shasha (2008). The cultural influence on the individual's sense of belonging -- A case study on New Shanghainese's sense of belonging.
  • 杨怡 Yang Yi (2008). Exploring organizational identity and acculturation--A case study of Chinese AIESEC trainees in four Central-Eastern European countries.
  • 刘星 Liu Xing (2008). When West meets East and man meets woman – A cross-cultural study of gender role attitudes, mathematic performance and academic emotion.
contacting us at the sii
Contacting us at the SII
  • Email: kulich@shisu.edu.cn
  • Address: Steve Kulich The SISU Intercultural Institute 550 W. Dalian Rd. PO Box 359 Shanghai 200083
  • Telephone: 021 - 65311900 x 2620