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401-04-04 Calorimeter Trigger. Sridhara Dasu, University of Wisconsin DOE CD1 Review 26 August 2013. The Grand Plan for Trigger Upgrade. LHC Calendar 2012: Discovered the Higgs 2013-2014: Make upgrades to handle 14 TeV + 2 x 10 34 cm –2 s –1

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401-04-04 Calorimeter Trigger

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401 04 04 calorimeter trigger

401-04-04 Calorimeter Trigger

Sridhara Dasu, University of Wisconsin

DOE CD1 Review

26 August 2013

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

the grand plan for trigger upgrade
The Grand Plan for Trigger Upgrade

LHC Calendar

  • 2012: Discovered the Higgs
  • 2013-2014: Make upgrades to handle 14 TeV + 2 x 1034 cm–2 s–1
  • 2015-2017: Discover new high energy physics phenomena using data at 14 TeV + study the Higgs + EWSB mechanism
  • 2018-2019: Make upgrades to handle 14 TeV + 5 x 1034 cm–2 s–1
  • 2020-2022: Program is dependent on what we find by 2018

CMS Plans

  • 2013: Finalize trigger designs and prototyping
  • 2014: Construct the trigger modules
  • 2015: Early operation with pre-production modules (Stage-1)
  • 2016-2017: Operations with fully upgraded trigger (Stage-2)

Rapid plan to ensure success in 2015-2017 run!

  • Plans backed up by thorough prototyping that is already underway

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

technical opportunity
Technical Opportunity

FPGA & Telecom technology advances

  • Ubiquitous 10 Gbps links
  • FPGAs with 72 rx/tx links with built in serdes
    • Xilinx Vertex-7 platform
    • Gigantic cores
    • DSP units, BRAM and Embedded processors
  • Fiber optic components
    • Avago mini-pods with 12x
  • Ripe time to upgrade from VME to uTCA

LHC long shutdown 2013-2014

  • Sufficient time for copper  optical transition for inputs
  • Ensures that upgraded electronics is ready for operation in 2016
  • Partial upgrade operation from 2015 itself

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

calorimeter trigger layers 1 2
Calorimeter Trigger Layers 1 & 2




DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger


Algorithm layers

  • First layer builds local clusters of energy deposits
    • Determines energy and cluster type (EM or Hadronic)
  • Second layer builds triggerable objects from clusters
    • Electron/Photon, Tau, Jet, MET, …

Mapping to architectures

  • Traditional architecture
    • Algorithm layer-1 maps to physical layer-1 electronics
      • Key feature: nearest-neighbor sharing
      • Sufficient to build clusters locally
    • Algorithm layer-2 maps to physical layer-2 electronics
      • All clusters available in one FPGA
  • Time multiplexing architecture
    • All primitive data passes through one FPGA
    • Potential for clever on-the-fly processing, if feasible/necessary

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

current upgraded calo trigger

HCAL Optical Splitters






Calo Trigger


Calo Trigger





Layer 1

Calo Trigger

Upgrade L1 Trigger System

Current L1 Trigger System





Layer 2

Calo Trigger

Current & Upgraded Calo Trigger



Risk mitigation by operating current and adiabatic stages of upgrade CT concurrently














DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

calorimeter trigger components
Calorimeter Trigger Components

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

algorithm studies
Algorithm Studies

Stage-1 uses clusters from RCT+HF processed by new mTCA cards

  • Adiabatic improvements to calorimeter trigger dataflow
  • Algorithm stage takes advantage of larger FPGA resources
  • Performance of the “revised” algorithms is very good
    • eGammaTau studied by FNAL/Wisconsin 
    • eGamma and muon isolation studied by UCSD 
    • Muon isolation and b-jet tagging with muons studied by Ohio 
    • Heavy Ion jet cleanup studied by MIT 
    • Improved jet finding with PU subtraction by UIC 
  • Further improvements using full ECAL granularity in Stage-1
    • Improved eGammaTau isolation & position (FNAL, Wisconsin)
    • Pile-up handling with lower LSB for ECAL (FNAL, Wisconsin)
    • Improved jet position and PU subtraction (Davis)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

electron photon trigger
Electron / Photon Trigger

Improved control on isolation

  • Factor of 2-3 reduction in rate with small loss in efficiency

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

tau trigger
Tau Trigger

Big improvement in efficiency with ~10X rate reduction!

Current tau trigger has large and negative PU dependence

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

jet triggers
Jet Triggers

Single jet thresholds similar to current

  • Multi-jet trigger thresholds better in upgrade (PU sub.)
  • Small improvement in efficiency turn-on

HT = SPTJets

Single jet

Quad jet

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

physics performance summary
Physics Performance Summary

Average Improvement: 17% (Low Lumi) & 40% (High Lumi)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

technical feasibility
Technical Feasibility
  • Prototypes for all major cards exist & have passed tests
  • Upgrade is based upon common μTCA hardware platform also used by HCAL & other CMS systems
  • Upgrade trigger is replacing existing trigger hardware built by the same team → interfaces well understood
  • Same team wrote software & firmware for existing trigger system → scope & requirements well understood
  • Requirements are frozen in approved Trigger TDR

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

calo trigger team experience
Calo Trigger Team Experience
  • Wesley Smith
    • CMS Trigger Project Manager 1994-2007,
    • Trigger Coordinator 2007 – 2012
    • US CMS L2 Trigger Project Manager 1998 – present
  • Sridhara Dasu
    • US CMS L3 Manager for Calorimeter Trigger, 1998 – present
    • Author of original & upgrade cal. trig. Algorithms 1994 – present
  • Pam Klabbers – Operations & Testing
    • CMS RCT Operations Manager (more than a decade on RCT project)
    • CMS Deputy Trigger Technical Coordinator
  • Tom Gorski– Hardware & Firmware
    • Over a decade of engineering on the CMS Calorimeter Trigger
  • Mathias Blake – Firmware
    • New to project -- 5 years Applications Engineer at Xilinx, 2 years FPGA Engineer at DRS Technologies, 3 years FPGA Design Engineer at Dolby Labs
  • JesTikalsky and Evan Friis – Software
    • Providing prototype testing software (Friis has experience with current RCT)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

calorimeter trigger wbs detail
Calorimeter Trigger WBS Detail



M&S paid byCMS-France

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

hcal ecal trigger primitives
HCAL & ECAL Trigger Primitives
  • Upgraded HCAL Readout & Trigger Electronics (μHTR) is after split that sends data to old electronics (HTR)
    • μHTR supplies TP to upgrade trigger, HTR continues to send to present trigger
  • ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are not upgraded, instead their mezzanines with trigger serial links are replaced (Lisbon):
    • Optical Serial Link Board oSLB replaces single copper link to current Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT – U. Wisc.) with two optical links (WBS 401.04.04.06)
    • One optical link to optical Receiver Module (oRM) on RCT (WBS 401.04.04.05)
      • Replaces copper Receiver Module
    • One optical link to input of Upgraded Calorimeter Trigger: CTP7 Card
  • 574 oSLB’s & oRM’s with Fibers installed in 2014
    • French Contribution to Calorimeter Trigger (no US Upgrade Funds)
  • Presently oSLB & oRM in final prototype stage
    • oSLB: oRM:

OSLB Output / oRM Input:

4x channels @ 1.2 Gbps

 4.8 Gbps

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

401 04 04 02 ctp card concept
401.04.04.02: CTP Card Concept
  • Main processor card
    • Virtex-7 690T for processing
    • ZYNQ for TCP/IP + linux
    • 60 10G optical Input links
    • 36 10G opticalOutput links
    • Function: Find ET clusters & transmit to Layer-2
  • Card Count = 46
    • 36 total + 8 spares + 2 test setups

1V 30A Supply

3.3V Supply

1.5V Supply

CXP Module

12Tx + 12 Rx

2.5V Supply

CXP Module

12Tx + 12 Rx

Virtex-7 VX690T FPGA








CXP Module

12Tx + 12Rx

(CTP-6 BG View)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

ctp virtex 6 prototype exists
CTP: Virtex-6 Prototype Exists

JTAG/USB Console

Interface Mezzanine

Power Modules

MMC Circuitry

Back End FPGA



4X Avago AFBR-820B Rx Module

12x Multi Gig Backplane Connections

Front End FPGA



Dual SDRAM for dedicated DAQ and TCP/IP buffering

Avago AFBR-810B Tx Module

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

ctp basis of estimate hardware
CTP: Basis of Estimate - Hardware
  • CTP7 is simpler than CTP6 prototype
    • Engineering effort for in-house design based on CTP6 work
    • Procurement of PCBs is based on recent CTP6 purchase
    • Good estimate of cost and schedule from prototype manufacture
  • Quotes available for all parts
    • Virtex-7 690T is the major cost driver – with recent quote
      • 3 690Ts donated by Xilinx
      • 5 690Ts purchased from Xilinx
      • Total of 8 FPGAs in-hand for prototypes
    • Optical modules based on recent purchase
    • Miscellaneous parts also have quotes or estimated from prototype purchases (power modules)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

ctp basis of estimate effort
CTP: Basis of Estimate - Effort
  • Firmware and software efforts estimated from prototype testing + prior RCT experience
    • Firmware algorithms for testing provide the basis for the core firmware, which is the most complicated
      • Tom Gorski and Mathias Blake
    • Trigger algorithm firmware work is based on prior experience managing GCT project (UK)
      • Wesley Smith was L1 project manager overseeing GCT
    • Software effort is based on current RCT
      • Sophistication of embedded Linux / TCP and shorter timeline for implementation requires professional software effort
        • JesTikalsky
      • Bulk of testing software from post-doc and graduate student
        • Pam Klabbers, Evan Friisand graduate students will develop software
    • Board and Firmware/Software done by the same group (Wisconsin) results in efficiencies

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

401 04 04 03 crosspoint io card u wisconsin
401.04.04.03: Crosspoint IO Card– U. Wisconsin

(2/crate x 3 crates = 6 + spares)

  • Function: For inter-board connections
  • Input/Output: 48x 4.8-6.4 Gbps
  • Prototype exists
  • Fully tested
  • Firmware is minimal and exists
  • CIOX cost well known
  • Ready for production

Controller (MMC and link mgmt)

4X Avago



Backplane Rx/TxRedriver ICs

(top and bottom sides)

4x4 Lane Bidirectional Multi Gig Backplane Connections

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

401 04 04 04 ctp infrastructure vadatech vt894 crate test setup
401.04.04.04: CTP Infrastructure:Vadatech VT894 Crate Test Setup

(Final system: 3 crates w/ 12 CTP7 ea. + 2 test setups + spare = 6)

TTC Downlink

U. Wisconsin designed backplane with dense card interconnects

manufactured & installed in commercial Vadatech VT892 Crate available in Vadatech Catalog




UW Aux

Vadatech MCH

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

ctp risk and mitigation strategy
CTP: Risk and Mitigation Strategy
  • The dominant risks are:
    • Availability of ALL trigger primitive inputs from ECAL, HCAL in optical format
    • Validation of large optical link plant in limited time
    • Fully validated trigger algorithms in firmware
    • Control and operations software
  • Risk mitigation strategy:
    • Continue to provide fully operational current trigger system in parallel with upgrade commissioning
    • Partial operation of the upgrade systems provide tangible benefits from 2015 onwards

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

calorimeter trigger risk mitigation
Calorimeter Trigger Risk Mitigation

oRSC Function:

Conversion to optical

oRSC Input:

RCT egt and jet clusters

80 MHz Parallel ECL

oRSC Output:

6x copies at 6.4 Gbps optical

  • Goal (Original):
    • Provide readout of original RCT descopedduring construction project
    • Present readout through GCT input buffer not workable with trigger evolution
    • Uses connection to a single CTP6 prototype or CTP7 card for DAQ readout
  • optical Receiver Summary Card (oRSC) paid by DOE Nuclear
    • VME Slave Interface Card
    • Fits in current RCT Crates (1 per crate)
    • 18 Cards in 2015 System
    • Receives RCT Jet Sum Card Outputto GCTon Copper “SCSI” Data Cables
    • Provides direct optical input to GCT
      • Bypassing old optical conversion cards
    • Planned use for Heavy Ion Triggers
    • Prototype under test 
  • Multiple optical outputs provide:
    • Inputs for upgrade calorimeter trigger &parallel operation of old & new trigger wherever ECAL & HCAL electronics notavailable in 2015

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

prototypes status optical links
Prototypes Status (Optical Links)
  • Input/Output verified – low bit error rate – clear eyes

oRSC to CTP6 (11x 6.4 Gbps links)

CTP6 to CTP6 (48x 6.4 Gbps links)

oRSC to MP7(4x 6.4 Gbps links)

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

hcal tpg to ctp integration test
HCAL TPG to CTP Integration Test
  • 12-links tested at 6.4 Gbps – no errors

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

running linux on ctp6 fpga petalinux
Running Linux on CTP6 FPGA – PetaLinux
  • Startup screen via USB console
  • Root login, pinging controller PC at
  • Running on CTP-6 back end FPGA (`VHX250T)
  • Important step towards CTP-7 ZYNQ-based Linux

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

demonstrators critical integration tests
Demonstrators & Critical Integration Tests
  • mHTR to CTP6 integration test at Madison (done)
    • Wisconsin/Minnesota : 12 links operated successfully
  • oRSCto CTP6 demonstrator at Madison (done)
    • Test 2-3 oRSCs and interface before shipment to CERN
  • oRSC to CTP6 platform at Prevessin(done)
    • 2 oRSCs emulate RCT + 1 CTP6 for RCT readout and algorithm tests
    • Full platform for system operations and control software development
  • oRSC- MP7 Integration test at Prevessin(done)
    • Wisconsin/Imperial July 2013 Milestone
  • CTP6 - oRSC-oRM/RCT - oSLB/TCC Integration Test at Prevessin
    • Wisconsin/Lisbon/LLR October 2013 Milestone
  • CTP6 - oRSC-oRM/RCT - oSLB/TCC -uHTR Integration Test at 904
    • Wisconsin/Lisbon/LLR/Minnesota November 2013 Milestone
  • CTP7 - MP7 Integration test at Prevessin
    • Wisconsin/Imperial March 2014 Milestone

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

adiabatic upgrade timeline
Adiabatic Upgrade Timeline
  • 2013
    • M&O + R&D Activity : oRSC construction, installation
    • Firmware development for RCT readout and testing using CTP6
    • Lisbon / France : oSLB and oRM construction, installation
    • Minnesota / Wisconsin : mHTR to CTP6 testing
  • 2014
    • Ensure fully working legacy RCT system with oRSC + CTP6 RO
    • CTP7, CIOX, … construction, validation
    • Firmware development for CTP7 testing and 2015 operation
  • 2015
    • Commission and operate Stage-1 system
    • Firmware development and integration of Stage-2 system
  • 2016
    • Commission and operate Stage-2 system

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger

ctp production installation etc
CTP: Production, Installation, etc
  • Launch Production (Buy parts, fabricate PCBs): 1QFY2014
  • Deliver Stage-1 Calorimeter Trigger (4 CTP boards + 1 crate + oRSCs): 4QFY2014
  • Initial operation at CERN (Firmware for Stage-1 + HF clusters): 2QFY2015
  • Deliver Stage-2 Calorimeter Trigger(All CTPs, CIOx, 3 crates): 2QFY2015
  • Test High Luminosity Operation of Calorimeter Trigger (All Firmware for Stage-2): 4QFY2016

DOE CD1 Review - US CMS Upgrade - Trigger