Attention!. Grades Lesson Study for test! Log assignment. Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism. Chinese Philosophy. Like their very different social order (merchants), the Chinese are different from every early civilization in that they are much more secular in their views.
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Attention! • Grades • Lesson • Study for test! • Log assignment
Chinese Philosophy • Like their very different social order (merchants), the Chinese are different from every early civilization in that they are much more secular in their views. • Because codified religion never truly takes hold, East Asia develops in a starkly contrasting pattern to the rest of the world.
Confucianism • Confucius, or Kung Fuzi (meaning Kung the Philosopher), lived from 551 to 478 b.c.e. • He was a teacher, not a religious leader, and a spokesman for the great days of the early Zhou (before the decline) • Confucius stressed personal virtue, moderation, love of wisdom and respect as the keys to peace and harmony
Analyze this Confucian Quotation “In an age of good government, men in high stations give preference to men of ability and give opportunity to those who are below them, and lesser people labor vigorously at their husbandry to serve their superiors” What do we call this type of government?
Confucianism was primarily a system of Ethics • Excerpt from The Analects of Confucius, c.400 BCE “Do not do unto others, what you would not want others to do to you” ACTUALLY, it was “Do unto others as your status and theirs indicates”
Confucius and the Han • Confucian doctrine was carefully recorded in The Analects • The Han saw the usefulness of Confucian learning and Scholars as Bureaucrats, so they created Schools that taught and tested students, offering rich government jobs to the best and brightest
Social Order • Confucianism was a social code of behavior, a very set and rigid code of behavior, that honored ancestors and ancient rituals. • Everything had to be done a certain way. One of his rules, for example, was that gentlemen could only display their skill as archers on three hunts a year, in the spring, autumn, and winter. • Chopsticks are first introduced as a way of encouraging politeness at meals
Validate this Statement using Logic It is imperative that you note that Confucianism was THE de facto philosophy of China, although it would be challenged often, for all of China’s dynastic history.
Book of Rituals • Book of Songs • Book of Changes • Book of Annals • Book of Documents • + Analects
Take 5 minutes to look up the following Confucian terms and commit them to your notes and your memory. Junxi Ren Li Xiao Confucian Vocabulary
Legalism, the Philosophy of Power • Legalism was a Qin philosophy that prided themselves on pragmatic thought • They disdained confucians as optimists and favored an authoritarian state instead
In a proper Legalist State. . . • The army would control the state and fight to defend and extend its borders. • The people would labor in agriculture to feed the population and provide for the army to stay in the field (that means at war) • What about scholars? What about them? They are dismissed as frivolities by Legalists
Legalism • Believing that the State should control everything (totalitarian) and direct all provinces (centralized), Legalism advocated rewards to those that perform well and strict punishments (I mean extreme) for those that do not. • Talk about a tough discipline; The first two and greatest Legalist Scholars, Shang Yang and Han Feizi, were actually assassinated by their peers!
Taoism • A more ‘religious’ philosophy in that it embraced China’s tradition of belief in nature’s harmony and added a sense of nature’s mystery • Even the founder is mythical, Lao Tsu
Tao • The Tao means the ‘way of nature’ and is attempted to be described in the Tao te Ching • What do I mean by attempted?
There is a thing confusedly formed Born between heaven and earth Silent and void It stands alone and does not change Goes round and does not weary It is capable of being the mother of the world I know not its name, so I style it the way Why does it feel like sticking a screwdriver in your head? The Way
Sounds difficult right? Try these little gems of Taoistic thought • The only way to follow the way is by not following the way • The way is the empty space in a bowl or in a wheel hub, it is not there, yet you cannot have either without them • You cannot follow the way, a rock follows the way, a turtle and cloud follow the way, but you do not.
Pooh? • to begin to understand Taoism you must use the great teacher, Winnie-the-Pooh! • If you are familiar with A.A.Milne's enchanting characters, Winnie-the-Pooh, Piglet, Rabbit, Owl, Tigger, and Eeyore, you'll be surprised but your have already studied Taoism.
" Rabbit's clever," said Pooh thoughtfully."Yes," said Piglet. "Rabbit's clever.""And he has a Brain.""Yes," said Piglet, "Rabbit has a Brain."There was a long silence. "I suppose," said Pooh, "that that's why he never understands anything." Taoist saying, “A clever mind is not a heart.” Taoist philosophy From The House at Pooh Corner
Taoist Saying "Lot's of people talk to animals," said Pooh. "Maybe, but...""Not very many listen, though," he said. "That's the problem," he added. “There is more to knowing than just being correct.”
The wise know their limitations; the foolish do not. • Roo and Tigger were walking along the forest one morning, and Tigger was talking about all the things that Tiggers can do...."I can swim," said Roo. "I fell into the river, and I swimmed. Can Tiggers swim?""Of course they can. Tiggers can do everything.""Can they climb trees better than Pooh?" asked Roo, stopping under the tallest Pine Tree, and looking up at it."Climbing trees is what they do best," said Tigger. "Much better than Poohs."And the next thing they knew, they were stuck in the tallest pine tree.
Taoism • Taoists believe it's very important to understand The Way Things Are. This does not mean that there are not things we need to change about ourselves, but it's important to recognize and trust our own Inner Nature, and discover who we are. In the story of "The Ugly Duckling", when does the duckling stop feeling ugly? When he discovers he's a Swan. When he recognizes who he really is, a beautiful swan, he finds his Way to happiness.
Layer Cake analysis of China’s Philosophies • Upper Class? • Middle Class? • Peasant Class?
Core Philosophies • Confucians will stress filial piety, ritual, custom, education, and the development of social relationships as essential to the growth of political order. • Legalists will emphasize strict laws and severe punishments to teach individuals obedience to the needs of the state. • Daoists will wonder what all the fuss is about, since they prefer passive withdrawal from political contention, in order to pursue harmony with nature.
Application • Help me analyze the following Quotations to determine their philosophical foundations
“That government is best which governs the least.” (Thomas Jefferson)
“The government has the right to lie to save itself.” (Arthur Sylvester)
“Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed, and in such desperate enterprises? If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.” (Henry David Thoreau)
“The wise are not learned; the learned are not wise.” (source unknown)
End • Chinese philosophy log assignment. . . • You must record x number of philosophical actions, comments, and observations in a school day • To be turned in for your enjoyment and for an easy 100 quiz grade.
Confucianism • In those days, only the nobility and royals were allowed education. All the teachers were government officials. It was hard for him to find a way to learn. To solve this, he went to work for a nobleman. This gave him the opportunity to travel to the imperial capital.
The Warring States Period • Confucius studied and learned until he probably was the most learned man of his day. • People heard of his knowledge and sent their sons to study with him. • He was the first private teacher in China. Confucius taught anyone who was eager to learn. • His ideas, called Confucianism, stress the need to develop responsibility and moral character through rigid rules of behavior.
Confucianism is not, properly speaking, a religion; it's a way of behaving, so you'll do the right things. Excerpt from The Analects of Confucius, c.400 BCE “Do not do unto others, what you would not want others to do to you” “If you make a mistake and do not correct it, this is called a mistake” Religion or Phislophy
There's a saying about Confucius: "If the mat was not straight, the Master would not sit." • You might think to yourself: "Wow. What a fussy guy." But think about it. In English, if you write a sentence, the first word must start with a capital letter and the last word must end with a period or an exclamation point. Otherwise, it's not a sentence. • Thus, "If the mat was not straight, the Master would not sit."
Confucius was a Teacher • Today, the Chinese celebrate Confucius Birthday (Teacher's Day), in honor of their ancestor, the teacher, Confucius.
Taoism • Tao (pronounced Dow) means The Way (to happiness). This sounds very nice, but what is the Way?