an introduction to argument and rhetoric n.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO ARGUMENT AND RHETORIC. AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION. Argument – the point is “to discover some version of the truth using evidence and reasons…lead[ing] audiences toward conviction, an agreement that a claim is true or reasonable, or that a course of action is desirable.”.

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everything is an argument
Argument – the point is “to discover some version of the truth using evidence and reasons…lead[ing] audiences toward conviction, an agreement that a claim is true or reasonable, or that a course of action is desirable.”

Persuasion – the point is “to change a point of view or to move others from conviction to action.”

“…[A]rgue to discover some truth; …persuade when [you] think [you] already know it.”

Everything is an Argument

Source: Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Fuszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s an Argument., 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007. p. 8.

purposes goals of argument
Purposes/Goals of Argument
  • To Inform – about something audience doesn’t know; to advise of something’s existence
  • To Convince audience of your point of view
  • To Explore – personal reflections, serious problems in society, presenting and defending solutions
  • To Make Decisions – may be the result of an exploratory argument
  • To Meditate or Pray – often for the purpose of transforming something in oneself or reaching a state of equilibrium or peace of mind

Examples of each one?

occasions for argument
Occasions for Argument
  • About the Past – forensic arguments (history, law, business, academia)
  • About the Future – deliberative arguments (what will or should happen in the future)
  • About the Present – contemporary values (ethical premises and assumptions that are widely held or contested within society
slide7

ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL TRIANGLE

LOGOS (topic/message)

Rhetorical Context

Kairos

ETHOS (speaker/writer)

PATHOS (audience/reader)

components of audience appeal
Components of Audience Appeal
  • Emotional appeal (pathos)
  • Ethical appeal (ethos)
  • Logical appeal (logos)
  • Rhetorical Context
  • Kairos
logos
Logos
  • logical appeals; these appeal to an audience’s intelligence (common sense) ; and use credible evidence such as statistics, polls, precedents(specific examples from the past), cite authorities on topic (must be timely and qualified to judge topic), deductive or inductive reasoning
types of logical appeal
Types of Logical Appeal
  • Cite traditional culture
  • Cite commonly held beliefs
  • Allude to history, the Bible, or great literature
  • Provide testimony, evidence, facts
  • Draw analogies or create metaphors
  • Cite authorities or research
  • Cite precedents
ethos
Ethos
  • establishing credibility with the audience. The writer must be deemed believable and trustworthy and often uses outside authorities who are also deemed credible to avoid making the argument look too personal.
types of ethical appeal
Types of Ethical Appeal
  • Claim authority
  • Connect own beliefs and values to core principles of audience
  • “Coming clean” about motives
  • Make audience believe writer is trustworthy
  • Demonstrate that writer put in research time
  • Present a carefully crafted and edited argument
  • Demonstrate that writer knows and respects the audience
  • Show concern about communicating with the audience
  • Convince the audience that the writer is reliable and knowledgeable
pathos
Pathos
  • using emotional appeals to engage the audience. This should not be overdone, but it can be effective because humans are emotional as well as intellectual beings. A writer’s word choices, use of figurative language, detail, and imagery, and tone help to create emotional appeals.
types of emotional appeal
Types of Emotional Appeal
  • Use language that involves the senses
  • Include a bias or prejudice
  • Focus on basic needs of people
    • Physical needs—life and health of the body
    • Psychological needs -the need for love, respect…
    • Social needs—the need for freedom, status, acceptance
  • Use the euphemism or figurative language
  • Experiment with informal language
identify the audience appeal
Identify the Audience Appeal
  • “The bigger they are, the harder they fall.”
  • a Livestrong bracelet
  • “Better a conventional war now, than a nuclear confrontation later.”
  • A Rolex watch
  • “Just do it” (ad for Nike)
  • “Have it your way.” (slogan for Burger King)
  • a belated birthday card
  • “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”
slide18

What emotions are aroused? How do words and image(s) clash? Is this an appeal to ethos or pathos? How do you know (evidence)?

tonight
Tonight
  • Review examples of logos, pathos, and ethos.
  • Find and print an advertisement (i.e. junkmail, magazine, newspaper, etc.) that makes an argument.
  • Label the examples of logos, pathos, and ethos
day 3
Day 3
  • Pair/share: present your print ad and appeals to your partner, then ask for feedback. Did you miss anything? Does your partner agree with your labeling?
  • Partners, share with the your small group, discuss the appeals, and complete the “Audience Appeals” graphic organizer
  • Debrief: (whole group) share most interesting appeals, most effective/ineffective
day 4
Day 4

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  • Tonight,print and annotate the article “My Very Own Captain America” by addressing the following:
    • Rhetorical Context (S.O.A.P.S.)
    • Author’s claim, tone, and call to action
    • At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e. anaphora, figurative language, etc.) and how each helps develop/support the claim
day 4 components contd
Day 4: Components (contd.)
  • Rhetorical context – the situation that surrounds the act of writing or speaking. Includes subject, occassion, purpose, and audience. What am I writing about? What is my purpose? For whom am I writing?
what is bush s argument
What is Bush’s ARGUMENT?

President George W. Bush speaks at Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota, August 15, 2002, regarding his proposed 170,000-strong Homeland Security Department. Photo: Larry Downing/Reuters

consider the vivid diction in this appeal
Consider the vivid diction in this appeal:
  • Marie inched her heavy wheelchair up the narrow, steep entrance ramp to the library, her arms straining to pull up the last twenty feet, her face pinched with the sheer effort of it.
    • Consider the diction and imagery which reveal pathos appeal
    • What is argument? Opposing view? Call to action?
patterns of development
Patterns of Development
  • The logical way to arrange or organize the argument according to the author’s purpose.
    • Narration
    • Description
    • Process analysis
    • Exemplification
    • Comparison and Contrast
    • Classification and Division
    • Definition
    • Cause and Effect
components contd
Components (contd.)
  • Kairos – The right moment, the opportune time. The right or critical place. The speaker’s ability to understand and use the contingency of context and to make decisions about the appropriateness of rhetorical choices. Relies on “exigence” – what happens or what fails to happen, reason why one is compelled to speak at that moment.
when rhetoric misses the mark
When Rhetoric Misses the Mark
  • Understanding the audience is vital to the success of an argument.
  • Consider President Clinton’s initial address to the nation concerning Monica Lewinsky:
    • Why did it “miss the mark”?
    • How was it different from speech as originally written?
    • What would the audience think/feel while listening to it?
  • Now, view the actualaddress to the nation:
    • Why did he give the speech he did instead of the original?
clinton s apology
Clinton’s Apology?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7r4e5Wg4PDI

challenger disaster
Challenger Disaster
  • Listen to Reagan’s speech, then answer the prompts regarding
  • Purpose
  • Tone
  • Audience appeal
  • Style

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qa7icmqgsow

reagan s argument
Reagan’s Argument

Annotate/Note Reagan’s

  • Rhetorical Context
  • Author’s claim, purpose, tone, and call to action
  • At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.)
slide32

annotate your print copy, addressing the following:

    • Rhetorical Context
    • Author’s claim, tone, and call to action
    • At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.)
    • What do you think makes the speech remarkable, considered to be in the “top 100” of American speeches?
review of an effective argument
Review of an Effective Argument
  • Makes claims based on factual evidence
  • Makes counter-claims, takes opposing views into account
  • Neutralizes or defeats serious opposing ideas
  • Convinces audience through the merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered
  • Logic-based
  • Makes effective audience appeals