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  1. An Introduction to Rhetoric Chapter 1

  2. What do we think of when we hear the word rhetoric?

  3. What is rhetoric? Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.”

  4. What do we use rhetoric for? • A position of strength • Ability to appeal to an audience • Persuasion= power • Resolve conflict • Persuade • Take action

  5. Key Elements of Rhetoric Content • The occasion or the time and place it was written or spoken Purpose • A goal that the speaker or writer wants to achieve Read Lou Gehrig’s speech on p.1 and then listen to the link below.

  6. In groups, identify the following in Lou Gehrig’s speech… • Delivered speech between games of a doubleheader • Contrast between his athletic career and life ending diagnosis • To remain positive • To downplay the fact that he has an incurable disease • To show that life must go on – baseball must go on Content Purpose

  7. Ethos (Character) • Demonstrate that speaker is credible and trustworthy • Often emphasis shared values between the speaker and audience • Ex. A spokesperson against teen drinking might someone who emphasizes they are a parent of a teen who experienced the negative consequences of drinking underage • How does Lou Gehrig establish ethos?

  8. Logos (Reason) • Offers clear, rationale ideas • Has a clear main thesis with specific details, examples, facts, statistical data, or expert testimony as support • Offers a counterargument • By conceding to an opposing view and then also refuting it, your argument becomes more valid and displays your careful consideration. (logic) • How does Gehrig establish logos? How does he offer a counterargument?

  9. Pathos (Emotion) • Rarely effective is used exclusively • Achieved with figurative language, personal antecedent, imagery, and/or effective word choice • Vivid concrete description • Visual elements have strong emotional appeal • How does Gehrig’s speech establish pathos?

  10. Let’s Review with a Prezi!

  11. Check for Understanding • Silently read the letter from Albert Einstein to a 6th grade student on p.9 • In your notes, identify the subject, speaker, audience; context and purpose, and appeals to logos, ethos, and pathos. • With a partner(s), compare notes and answer this question: How rhetorically effective do you find Einstein’s response? • Be prepared to discuss your points with the class.

  12. Visual Rhetoric

  13. Visual Rhetoric • Subject: the death of Rosa Parks • Speaker: Tom Toles (award-winning political cartoonist) • Audience: readers of the Washington Post • Ethos: speaker and audience have shared admiration and respect for Parks (credible) • Context: memorial for Parks • Purpose: to remember Parks for her actions

  14. Rhetoric in Literature p. 12 • Subject: Priam wants his dead son’s body • Speaker: Priam • Audience: Achilles • Ethos: Priam emphasizes he is an aging old man • Pathos: Makes connections to Achilles’ father • Logos: Priam offers “ransom” in exchange for his son • Context: After battle between Hector and Achilles • Purpose: to reclaim his son’s body

  15. Arrangement • The organization of a piece • There is a framework for the essay; a beginning, a middle, and an end • Within that framework, the argument is structured to meet its purpose

  16. The Classical Model 5 part structure for an oratory (speech) • The introduction introduces the reader to the subject; can be one or several paragraphs; draws the reader into the text; establishes ethos • The narration provides factual and background information; identifies the problem; level of detail relies on the knowledge of the audience; establishes pathos

  17. The confirmation includes the proof needed to make the writer’s case; contains the most concrete details; establishes logos • The refutation addresses the counterargument; bridge between proof and conclusion; appeals largely to logos • The conclusions brings the essay to a satisfying close; can be one or several paragraph; writer usually appeals to pathos; answers the question, so what? Read and analyze the example on p.14

  18. Arrangement According to Purpose • Narration • Description • Process Analysis • Exemplification • Comparison and Contrast • Classification and Division • Definition • Cause and Effect

  19. Narration • Telling a story or recounting a series of events • Based on personal experience or knowledge gained from observation • Chronological sequence • Concrete detail, point of view, and sometimes dialogue • About crafting a story that supports your thesis Example p.17

  20. Description • Unlike narration, description emphasizes the senses • Paints a picture • Used to establish mood or atmosphere • Rarely is an entire essay descriptive • Can make writing more persuasive • Readers more easily empathize with you and your argument by sharing your senses Example p.18

  21. Process Analysis • Explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was done • Clarity is key • Explain subject clearly and logically with transitions that mark sequence • How to bake bread • How to assemble a treadmill • A self-help book Example p.19

  22. Exemplification • Turns a general idea into a concrete one by providing a series of examples • Can use on extended example or a series of examples • Examples lead to a general conclusion • Induction – a type of logical proof (Aristotle) Example p.20

  23. Compare and Contrast • A common pattern of development • Juxtaposing two things to highlight similarities and differences • Used to analyze information carefully • Organized subject-by-subject or point-by-point Example p.21

  24. Classification and Division • Sort ideas or material into major categories • What goes together and why? • Readers and writers can make connection between seemingly unrelated things. • Used to break down a larger idea or concept into parts Example p.23

  25. Definition • Sometimes, definition is required for meaningful conversation. • Lays the foundation to establish common ground • Definition can be a paragraph or two. • Definition can the purpose of an essay. Example p.24

  26. Cause and Effect • What causes lead to a certain effect? • What effects result from a certain cause? • Either way, careful logic is key • Often signaled by a why in the title or opening paragraph. Example p.26

  27. Check for Understanding • Silently read Jody Heyman’s essay “We Can Afford to Give Parents a Break” on p.6 • Make notes of the patterns of development. • With a partner in your group, compare notes and answer the following questions: • Which pattern prevails in the overall essay? • Which does she use in specific sections or paragraphs? • Be prepared to discuss points with the class.

  28. When Rhetoric Misses the Mark • Sometimes effective rhetoric is a matter of opinion. • Is the following speech rhetorically effective? • Read Mr. Collins’ proposal to Elizabeth Bennet from Jane Austen’s novel Pride and Prejudice p.26 • Is this rhetorically effective? • Which rhetorical appeal does his writing demonstrate?

  29. Check for Understanding • Listen and follow along to the four texts related to the death of Princess Diana. • In each text, identify the purpose, speaker, audience, and subject in your notes. • With your group, compare and discuss your notes. • How does the interaction of speaker, audience, and subject affect the texts? How effective is each text in achieving its purpose? • Answer these questions in a group essay.