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Buffalo Soldiers. Artist of the West: Frederic Remington. Regular U.S. Army. Primary functions to 20 th century: Frontier constabulary Coastal defense. How was the U.S. to fight wars?. To meet large manpower requirements: Call out state militias Limited federal service

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Artist of the west frederic remington
Artist of the West:Frederic Remington

Regular u s army
Regular U.S. Army

  • Primary functions to 20th century:

    • Frontier constabulary

    • Coastal defense

How was the u s to fight wars
How was the U.S. to fight wars?

  • To meet large manpower requirements:

    • Call out state militias

      • Limited federal service

    • Raise volunteer units

      • Raised by states (appointed unit officers)

      • Incorporated into federal armies


  • Attitudes of regular officers?

  • Relationship between army and American society?

  • What are the implications of the end of the Indian wars?

U s army in late 19 th century
U.S. Army in late 19th century

  • Era of isolation

  • Efforts at professionalization

Professionalism encompasses
Professionalism encompasses:

  • Expertise

  • Social Responsibility

  • Corporateness

Military professionalism
Military Professionalism

  • Expertise: Management of violence

  • Responsibility: Defense

    Application of force in pursuit of national goals

  • Corporateness: Officers

Earlier developments towards military professionalization in u s
Earlier developments towards military professionalization in U.S.

  • U.S. Military Academy at West Point (1802)

  • U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis (1845-50)

  • Expansible army

Commanding general of the army 1869 1883
Commanding General of the Army, 1869-1883: U.S.

  • William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Oversees formation of many military schools and institutions

    • Helps revive artillery school, 1868

    • Encourages engineering school

    • Forms Military Service Institute, 1878

    • Forms School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, Fort Leavenworth (becomes General Service and Staff College), 1881

Emory upton
Emory Upton U.S.

  • USMA Grad

  • Distinguished Civil War service

  • Developed post-war tactical system

  • Commandant of Cadets at USMA, 1870-75

  • Sent on world tour, 1875

  • Publications:

    • The Armies of Asia and Europe, 1878

    • The Military Policy of the United States, 1904

Upton argued officers should have greater control of military policy
Upton argued officers should have greater control of military policy

  • Criticized civilian leaders’ lack of expertise.

  • Condemned reliance on volunteers & militia.

  • Admired Germany.

  • Wanted new, larger Army staff with greater control of policy, resources.

  • Called for larger, “expansible” regular army.

  • For larger manpower needs, advocated “national volunteers” under army control.

Other army reforms late 1800 s
Other Army reforms, late 1800’s military policy

  • Compulsory officer retirement at age 64 (1882).

  • Examinations required for promotions, up to rank of major (1890).

  • Regular character and efficiency reports for all officers (mid 1890’s)

The national guard
The National Guard military policy

  • 19th century: mandatory militia duty not enforced by the states.

  • Men interested in militia service joined voluntary companies.

  • After Civil War, interest in voluntary units picked up in 1870’s, which took name National Guard.

Key function of guard units strike duty
Key function of Guard units: military policyStrike duty

  • States revamp militia codes, 1881-92.

  • Guard units called out >700 times, 1877-1903.

  • Guard units also primary reserve behind regular army.

    • Under control of states

U s navy
U.S. Navy military policy

  • Primary functions to late-19th century

    • protect commerce

    • “show the flag”

    • coastal defense

  • Additional functions in war

    • raid enemy commerce

    • blockade/bombardment*

Navy pursued traditional functions after the civil war
Navy pursued traditional functions after the Civil War military policy

  • Size reduced from 700 (1865) to 52 (1870).

  • Squadron system reinstituted.

    • focus on Latin America and Asia

  • Ships mostly:

    • wooden

    • wind-powered

    • armed with muzzle-loading smoothbore guns

1880 s naval modernization begins
1880’s: Naval modernization begins military policy

  • Congress authorized building steel-hull vessels.

  • Authorized retirement of older ships.

  • New ships reflected Navy’s traditional functions:

    • Largest vessels cruisers designed for commerce protection/raiding, coercing non-Western peoples.

Beginnings of the new navy
Beginnings of the “New Navy” military policy

  • U.S.S. Atlanta

  • U.S.S. Chicago

Naval professionalism
Naval Professionalism military policy

  • Assisted by Stephen B. Luce

  • Formed:

    • United States Naval Institute, 1873

    • Naval War College, 1884

A sea change in attitudes 1870 1890
A “Sea-change” in attitudes, military policy1870-1890

  • Calls for an American Empire - an updated form of “Manifest Destiny.” Reflected:

    • Growing nationalism

    • Social Darwinism

  • Commerce military policy

    • With increasing industrialization, many believed country needed secure access to foreign markets for American goods

    • Guaranteed access required a strong navy

  • Rearmament

    • Advocates feared navy becoming technologically obsolescent

    • Also reflected career concerns of naval officers

Benjamin f tracy secretary of the navy 1889 93
Benjamin F. Tracy, military policySecretary of the Navy, 1889-93

  • Advocated new naval policy:

    • Strategy should emphasize “command of the sea” utilizing fleets of large warships.

    • Large navy would require more bases, territories overseas.

Tracy convinces congress to build 9 battleships before 1898
Tracy convinces Congress to build 9 battleships before 1898 military policy

  • U.S.S. Oregon

  • U.S.S. Iowa

Prophet of american navalism
“Prophet” of American Navalism military policy

  • Alfred Thayer Mahan

  • Undistinguished career prior to 1886

  • Most famous publication:

    • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783

Mahan s writings
Mahan’s writings military policy

  • Emphasized links between commerce and need for a large navy.

  • Advocated fleet-oriented, “command of the sea” strategy.

    • Disparaged guerre de course

  • Called for additional overseas bases.

  • Took a skewed view of history.

  • Ignored developments in technology.