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Imperialism’s affect on Africa. Two Waves. First wave from late 1400’s to early 1800’s. Revolved around the West Coast and slave trade. . Impact of First Wave.

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two waves
Two Waves
  • First wave from late 1400’s to early 1800’s.
  • Revolved around the West Coast and slave trade.
impact of first wave
Impact of First Wave
  • Untold. How can you say what taking 10-15 million people out of an area by force does to the culture, economy, politics, psyche, morale, innovation, etc?
slide5

Did contribute to increased tribal warfare as neighbors are encouraged to fight each other for more slaves to trade.

  • Contributed to weakened states.
slide6

Second Wave had to do with economic resources and claim of Empire. 1800’s – mid 1900’s. Solidified with 1888 Berlin Congress

impact of second wave
Impact of Second Wave
  • Again, how can you assess what dividing up a continent among European nations in order to exploit labor and resources by creating fake borders grouping different peoples together and giving them new identities can do to the culture, economy, psyche, morale, innovation, etc?
slide8

Neocolonialism existed just as in Latin America but with much more control. Made African nations mine and farm for Europe. Disallowing their development into industry or other business.

slide9
This is still being done by foreign companies cooperating with the leadership in some African nations. Examples of cell phones and oil
  • http://pulitzercenter.org/video/congos-bloody-coltan
  • http://pulitzercenter.org/blog/untold-stories/crude-awakening
slide11

Some argued against this new wave of imperialism either on economic or moral grounds…

Too expensive and benefits did not outweigh the costs

Nations believed in Enlightenment ideals and democracy…this was not representative of what European nations stood for.

slide12

Changed languages

  • Changed religions
  • Changed trade
  • Changed borders
  • Changed power structures
  • Changed view of human rights
  • Changed tax structure (cash payments traps people into becoming wage earners in European interests as miners or farmers)
some positives claimed
Some positives claimed
  • Education BUT…http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/01/16-africa-learning-watkins,
  • Some industry and transportation BUT…http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ad696e/ad696e04.htm, http://digitaldocsinabox.org/images/Imperialism/building_railway.html
  • Medicine BUT…http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/31/opinion/31washington.html?_r=0, http://thinkafricapress.com/society/african-witchcraft-modern-reality
examples
Examples
  • South Africa
  • apartheid
how change occurred downloads hd stock footage apartheid south africa protests civil rights mp4
How Change Occurred..\Downloads\HD Stock Footage Apartheid - South Africa Protests - Civil Rights.mp4
slide19
Or…

..\Downloads\Post Apartheid South Africa.mp4

slide20

European’s fault?

  • Or get over it Ms. Irving?
slide21

Congo

  • ..\Downloads\Congo-The Brutal History.mp4
how changed occurred
How Changed Occurred
  • ..\Downloads\Belgian Congo uprising.mp4
  • ..\Downloads\Malcolm X on the Assasination of Lumumba in the Congo.mp4
slide24

..\Downloads\Belgium- A Shadowy Legacy in the Congo - European Journal.mp4

  • http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=50144817n
  • http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504803_162-57579505-10391709/interviews-with-konys-child-soldiers/
slide25

European’s fault? (Belgium!)

  • Or get over it Ms. Irving?
slide26

Rwanda

  • Hutus and Tutsis
how conflict emerged
How Conflict Emerged

http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=3004020n

modern day results2
Modern Day Results
  • ..\Downloads\Remarks to Victims and Survivors of the Genocide in Rwanda.mp4
slide29

European’s fault?

  • Or get over it Ms. Irving?
slide34

http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/rough/2005/08/occupied_minds.html#http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/rough/2005/08/occupied_minds.html#

slide35

European’s fault?

  • Or get over it Ms. Irving?
decolonization came in general because
Decolonization came in general because…
  • Two world wars had destroyed Europe’s ability to hold on to colonies.
  • Nationalism (African and Arab) motivated colonial peoples to argue for freedom.
  • The United Nations mandated that colonies be freed world wide.
  • Colonial peoples had fought in both wars for “democracy” and “freedom”
  • Morality finally started to kick in to some of the European attitudes.
cold war impact too
Cold War Impact Too
  • The Cold War saw the savage murder or violent overthrow by the British, Americans, Belgians, French and Portuguese of nationalist African leaders including Patrice Lumumba, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, Luis Cabral, Eduardo Mondlane, Samora Marcel, Milton Obote, HamedSekouToure, Gamel Abdel Nasser and Ahmed Ben Bella who were dubbed terrorists or Russian and Chinese sympathizers.
  • The lucky ones – Jomo Kenyatta, Robert Mugabe and Nelson Mandela were given long prison sentences from which they were never expected to come out, alive. Today, Mandela’s statue stands as a monument of British cynicism, in Parliament square, London.
  • The human, social and economic wounds inflicted on Africa by the Cold War are still very raw. Mozambique, Angola and Namibia are littered with millions of land mines and other unexploded military ordinances, which will kill people for centuries to come.  Algeria, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic  of Congo, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda are fighting self-destruct wars, while Somalia ceased to be a state in 1992, thanks to western weapons.
  • Overall, the Cold War left Africa on the life-support machine of western food aid administered by the World Food Programme, while their leaders pay lip service to cure the patient.
un in congo some attempts to change blood diamond campaign
UN in CongoSome attempts to ChangeBlood diamond campaign