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Air Quality Planning in Maryland Where have we been and where are we going? Tad Aburn Program Manager, Air Quality Planning and Monitoring Division
Topics Covered • The Basics of Maryland’s Air Quality • The new air quality standards • Recent Good News • Challenges of meeting the new standards • Reducing emissions in Maryland • The increasingly important role of air pollution that is transported into Maryland
Maryland’s Air Quality • We have problems with long term ozone exposure • Fine particulate levels are generally very close to the federal standard • Regional Haze issues • Air pollution contributes significantly to Bay pollution
The New Air Quality StandardsA Transition Period • New air quality standards for ozone and fine particulate became effective in 2004 • Requires plans in 2007/2008 and attainment by 2010 • The recently revoked 1hr Ozone Standard – June 15th, 2005 • 2005 will be a period of transition • Wrapping up the work on the old standards and initiating new work to meet the new challenges
Meeting the New StandardsA Significant Challenge • New 8-hour ozone and fine particulate standards both present major challenges • Both are “regional” pollutants – Transport is very significant • Nonattainment areas and contributing sources are similar Note: Design Values are not official until approved by EPA
How Might Ozone Affect My Health? • Ozone can irritate the respiratory system. • Ozone can reduce lung function. • Ozone can aggravate asthma. • Ozone may aggravate chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema and bronchitis. • Ozone may reduce the immune system's ability to fight off bacterial infections in the respiratory system. • Differences between short and long term exposure – 1hr vs. 8hr standard
Maryland’s 1-Hour Ozone NAA’s Baltimore Region Cecil County (Part of Phil. NAA) Kent and Queen Anne’s County Region Washington DC Region
Maryland’s 8-Hour Ozone NAA’s Baltimore Region Washington County EAC Cecil County (Part of Phil. NAA) Kent and Queen Anne’s County Region Washington DC Region
What is Fine Particulate Matter? • Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. • These small particles can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. • Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope.
Health Effects From Particulate Mater • Many scientific studies have linked breathing PM to a series of significant health problems, including: • aggravated asthma • increases in respiratory symptoms like coughing and difficult or painful breathing • chronic bronchitis • decreased lung function • premature death
Other Effects From Particles • Visibility Impairment • PM is the major cause of reduced visibility (haze) in parts of the United States, including many of our national parks. • Aesthetic Damage • Soot, a type of PM, stains and damages stone and other materials, including objects such as monuments and statues. • Plant Damage • PM can form a film on plant leaves interfering with photosynthesis and plant growth
Why is PM2.5 different from ozone? Source: EPA
What do our PM2.5 nonattainment areas look like? Baltimore Region Washington Region Washington County Nonattainment Area
Good News – Ozone Levels • Ground Level Ozone • Monitored levels are lower than they have ever been • Reasonable chance to monitor “attainment” for the old 1-hour ozone standard in 2005 • Kent and Queen Anne’s County has been redesignated to “attainment” for the old 1-hour ozone standard • Maryland areas designated “Moderate” under new standard • Not “Severe” as they were under 1-hour standard
In 1990, the CAA required us to meet the 1hr ozone standard (now revoked) in 15years. This (2005) is our attainment year and so far, based on the last three years of air quality data, we look to make it!! Progress Towards 1Hr Attainment
http://www.lippmannforcongress.us/air%20pollution.jpg Good News – Local Reductions • Maryland has implemented one of the country’s most aggressive set of air pollution control regulations • Power plants to hair spray and perfume • Over 100 different regulations since 1990 • Emissions in Maryland have been cut by about 40% since 1990 • National average is about 20% • Recent settlement will result in about a 70% reduction in NOx emissions from Mirant’s Maryland power plants
Good News – Mobile Source Reductions • Maryland programs like the VEIP combined with Federal requirements have reduced mobile source emissions in Maryland by about 50% since 1990. • Significant additional reductions are phased in in 2004 and 2007 • By 2030 mobile source emissions are projected to be 11% of what they were in 1990. • These reductions include significant projected growth in Vehicle Miles Traveled (about 40%)
Good News – Power Plant Reductions • Significant reductions from regional power plants between 2002 and 2005 • Billions of dollars being invested in “Selective Catalytic Reduction” (SCR) technology to reduce power plant NOx emissions SCR By State Over 50 % of the coal-fired capacity in key upwind states will be controlled with SCR by 2005 1 to 25 % 26 to 49% 50 % or greater
Currently • Implementation of existing local regulations (from the 1hr ozone standard) • Never-ending search for cost effective/ efficient local control programs (new 8hr ozone standard and PM2.5 standard) • Power Plant Controls (The Federal NOx SIP Call) More on the way • Federal Rules (Clean Air Interstate Rule) • OTC Regional Multi-Pollutant Position • Mirant Settlement What are we doing to clean the air?
MD’s Latest Additions: • OTC AIM • OTC Consumer Products • OTC Gas Cans • Solvent Cleaning Regulation • Mobile Equipment Refinishing Regulation • Regional Controls still require local implementation and enforcement • These control programs to the right are still producing additional benefits along the way What have we done lately?
Are Emissions Higher in Maryland? States Source: U.S. EPA - 1999 data tons per year
What is transported and where does it come from? • Air pollution floating in from other states (called transport) is a significant contributor to Maryland’s air pollution problems • Maryland’s transport problem is amongst the worst in the United States • All states are affected by air pollution transport to some degree • LEARN MORE….Breakout Session 1
The Role of Pollution Transport • New science now confirms that a large mass of ozone covers our region and float in mass from one state to the next over large parts of the East • MDE/University of Maryland airplanes routinely measure the “incoming” ozone cloud at 100 to 110 parts per billion (ppb) • New standard = 85 ppb • On any given day, well over half of MD’s ozone originates in upwind states. • On some days the upwind contribution may be 70% or more
Addressing TransportMulti-Pollutant Power Plant Controls • Maryland supports the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) position on power plant controls • Calls for deeper and quicker reductions from power plants than those in EPAs the Clean Air Interstate Rules (CAIR) • The OTC plan is achievable and very cost effective • Benefits outweigh costs by more than a factor of 10 • OTC states planning to implement tougher CAIR Plus program
Another Major Transport Theme“Leveling the Playing Field” • Pollution controls in Maryland and other Northeast states are very tough • Science tells us that the pollution control playing field needs to be leveled over much larger areas CURRENT PLAYING FIELD GENERALLY WHERE THE PLAYING FIELD SHOULD BE LEVELED MD
MDE Initiatives: • Western MD Monitoring Site (gateway to transport) • The Blackout Study – continuing partnership with UM • Low Level Jet Work • Leveling the Playing Field Concept • Ozone Balloon Study – Elevated reservoir of ozone Improving the Science
Upcoming Sessions • Session 1: Air Quality 101 – Randy Mosier • Session 1: The Basic Science of Air Pollution Transport - Brian Hug • Working Lunch - (Lunch will be provided) - “Pollution Prevention Services and Recognition for Maryland Businesses” - Laura Armstrong • Session 2: Mobile Sources: Strategies for All Fronts – Diane Franks (and Panel) • Session 2: Basics of the Clean Air Interstate Rule and the Clean Air Mercury Rule - Brian Hug • The State Implementation Plan Process – our next steps - Tad Aburn, Diane Franks, Brian Hug
Thanks…..Tad AburnProgram Manager, Air Quality Planning and Monitoring Program410firstname.lastname@example.org