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Module 2: Series Circuits Module Objectives: Upon completion of this module, students should be able to: 1. Explore the idea of a series circuit. 2. Understand how to draw a circuit diagram of a series circuit.

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Module 2: Series Circuits

Module Objectives:

Upon completion of this module, students should be able to:

1. Explore the idea of a series circuit.

2. Understand how to draw a circuit diagram of a series circuit.

3. State the voltage, current, resistance, and power characteristics of a series circuit.

4. Solve for unknown circuit values in a series circuit.

5. Use a multimeter to measure the potential differences (voltages),

currents and resistance of series circuits.

6. Apply the concepts of relative polarity, series adding, and series

opposing voltages.

7. Study the applications of voltage divider calculations

8. Apply Ohm’s Law to calculate resistance, voltage and current in

series circuits.

9. Verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law in a series circuit.

10.Recognize some basic applications of series circuits.

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Series Circuits

2.1 Introduction to series circuits

A series circuit is a circuit that has only one path for current flow.

http://physiquecollege.free.fr/college_lycee/cinquieme/electricite/courts-circuits.swf

Circuit Diagram

Circuit diagram shows the physical details of the circuit.

Schematic diagram uses symbols to represent each circuit component.

Schematic diagram

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Notes: In a series circuit:

• If a lamp 'blows' or a component is

disconnected, all the components

stop working.

• If you put more lamps into a series

circuit, the lamps will be dimmer.

2.2 Identifying Circuit Components

Current is the samein the series circuit

In a series circuit, the total voltage equals the sum of the voltage across the batteries wired

in series in the circuit.

In a series circuit, the total resistance (in ohms) equals the sumof the resistance of each device using electricity.

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2.4 Series Circuit Formulas

IT = I1 = I2 = I3

VT = V1 + V2 + V3

RT = R1 + R2 + R3

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Power in series circuits

The total power dissipated (Pt) in a series

circuit is always the sum of the power

dissipated by the individual resistors or

the product of the total current (It) and

the source voltage (Vt).

Two lamps are

dimmer

Single lamp

is brighter

PT = IT x VT

Summary Table

Ohm's Law can be used to solve for any

of the individual values or for the total

value of each measure within the series

circuit.

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2.5 Voltage Sources in Series

When the polarities of the power sources

are connected in the same direction as

shown here, they are referred to as Series aiding

When the polarities of power sources are

connected in opposite directions as shown, their voltages cancel, and are referred to as Series opposing

Solve example 1.1 - page 10

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2.6 Voltage Divider Rule

The two resistor voltage divider as shown here is used often to supply a voltage different from that of an available battery or power supply.

The voltage drop across any given

resistor in a series circuit is equal to

Solve example 2.2- page 11

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2.7 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) is generally

stated as:

Thesumof all the voltage drops around a single closed path in a circuit is equal to

the total source voltage in that closed path.

Solve exercises - page 17,18