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Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Public Service Administration: on the Recruitment and Selection Toolkit PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION June 2005
INTRODUCTION • The toolkit on R&S is not a blue print but a guideline that can be tailor-made to suit the needs of departments. • What precedes the Recruitment and Selection process is key and fundamental. • According to the Public Service Regulations an EA shall: 1. assess the HR capacity to perform her or his department’s functions, with particular reference to: 1.1. the number of employees required; 1.2. the competencies which those employees must possess; and 1.3. the capacities (whether permanent or temporary) in which those employees shall be appointed 2. assess existing HR by race, gender and disability as well as occupational category, organisational component and grade with reference to their- 2.1. competencies 2.2. training needs 2.3. employment capacities • These are to be planned within available budgets.
INTRODUCTION – CONTINUED • The human resource plans must as a minimum include – 1. Realistic goals and measurable targets for achieving representativeness 2. Targets for the training of employees • Furthermore an EA shall develop and implement an affirmative action programme which shall contain as a minimum - 1. Policy 2. Numeric and time bound targets 3. Annual statistics 4. A plan for redressing numeric under – representativeness • The aforementioned will inform and guide the manner in which recruitment and selection takes place. • Departments should take care not to over emphasize the need for educational qualifications. • Competencies, skills and experience should also be given prominence so as not to exclude competent previously disadvantaged candidates.
Recruitment & Selection …. Rationale for guidelines The R&S process Advertising Screening Short-listing Final selection
Recruitment & Selection Importance of sound R & S A smaller burden on training resources Lesser supervision, mentoring Better discipline Better career prospects More independent functioning and job satisfaction
Recruitment & Selection Rationale for a Toolkit Investigations revealed that departments do not - have detailed policies and procedures in place properly determine valid selection criteria and apply these consistently thoroughly consider what skills, competencies, training and traits they require motivate and record their findings and decisions properly structure their selection processes in accordance with these criteria monitor their own conduct with a view to improvement
Recruitment & Selection Rationale for a Toolkit Shortcomings give rise to – the filling of posts taking exceptionally long the final selection phase being flawed and open to criticism screening and short-listing being flawed Selection Committee members not being sufficiently prepared
Recruitment & Selection Rationale for a Toolkit Some Selection Committee members are not sufficiently prepared for the task at hand since they – are sometimes only involved at a very late stage lack the necessary interviewing skills are not always provided with sufficient information are not always familiar with the selection instruments utilised
Recruitment & Selection Rationale for a Toolkit The final selection phase is flawed mainly because – selection criteria are poorly identified selection interviews are poorly structured Interviewee
Recruitment & Selection The purpose with the Toolkit The purpose with this Toolkit is to assist with the following areas of R & S: 3 Establishing a framework for policy development 2 Addressing the dynamics of R & S 1 Identifying principles underlying R & S practices
Recruitment & Selection Obectives with the Toolkit Guidance on R & S processes Guidance on departmental policy Avert typical errors/ pitfalls Introduce the concept of self-monitoring
Recruitment & Selection Principles underlying R & S policy guidelines enhance goal achievement Good administration and decisions yield good results Proper plan sets the scene for success
Recruitment & Selection The R & S process • Advertising • Registering applications • Screening • Short-listing • Final selection Apply your mind Apply your mind Apply your mind
Recruitment & Selection Important points of departure Recruitment and selection is first of all a line management responsibility Reasonable time periods should be allocated to the execution of each phase Each recruitment and selection phase should be finalised before moving on to the next phase
Recruitment & Selection Advertising A Framework Post designation Salary package Key performance areas Ideal profile Special requirements Special notifications
Recruitment & Selection Advertising What you advertise is what you get • How can discrimination be avoided? • Content wise • Placement wise
Recruitment & Selection Registering applications / Master List
Recruitment & Selection Sreening • What is the purpose of screening? It is a paper exercise • It seeks to identify those applications that • meet the minimum entry-level requirements
Recruitment & Selection Sreening • What principles apply to the screening process? • A fair set of screening criteria should apply • The criteria must be in line with the job content and appointment as well as advertised requirements • Applicants should be clear on the criteria that apply • The criteria should apply to all applicants in a consistent manner • Any waivers should be fully motivated and approved • Declarations should be made of whether any candidate is related to or friends of an official in the component where the vacancy exists • The various activities of the screening process should be documented and put on record
Recruitment & Selection Sreening What are the typical steps that should be followed in ensuring the accountable screening of candidates? 1. Keep a list of all applications received 2.Identify fair screening criteria 3.Ensure that the criteria are reflected in the advertisement 4.Demonstrate a fair process by applying criteria consistently 5.Ensure that unsuccessful candidates are notified in good time 6.Ensure that all relevant information is put on record
Recruitment & Selection Sreening May a standardized format be utilised to assist with the screening process? • Benefits:It provides for objectivity and openness It provides certainty about the steps that should be taken and the criteria that should apply It provides for responsible and accountable action It provides for easy monitoring and control It provides for instant record keeping • Disadvantages:The biggest disadvantage is that it may contribute to the so-called “paper war” in departments
Recruitment & Selection Sreening What can typically be used as selection criteria for screening purposes? • Criterion 1: Closing date for applications should be met • Criterion 2: Certain conditions should be met in relation to the format and content of – • application forms, • Curricula Vitae (CV’s); and • all other relevant documentation. • Criterion 3:Appointment requirements should be met in terms of – • citizenship; • age; • character; and • health • Criterion 4: Minimum advertised requirements should be met in terms of – • qualifications; and • competencies (knowledge, skills, and where required, experience) 5
Recruitment & Selection Short-listing • What is the purpose of short-listing? • It is a paper exercise • It seeks to identify a manageable size (pool) of applicants (a shortlist) who are best suited to fill the position successfully from whose ranks the most suitable candidate(s) is/are to be selected • What principles apply to the screening process? • A fair set of short-listing criteria should apply • It must be in line with the job content and appointment as well as advertised requirements • Applicants should be clear on the criteria that apply • The criteria should apply to all applicants in a consistent manner • Any waivers should be fully motivated and approved • The various activities of the short-listing process should be documented and put on record
Recruitment & Selection Short-listing What are the typical steps that should be followed in ensuring the accountable short-listing of candidates? 1. Keep a list of all applicants considered for short-listing 2. Identify fair short-listing criteria 3. Ensure that the criteria are in line with the advertisement requirements 4. Ensure that the advertised requirements provide for the assessment of potential 5.Demonstrate a fair process by applying criteria consistently 6.Ensure that unsuccessful candidates are notified in good time 7.Ensure that all relevant information is put on record
Recruitment & Selection Short-listing What can typically be used as selection criteria for short-listing purposes? • Criterion 1:Successful shortlisting of candidates • Criterion 2:Thelevel of qualifications and competencies (A higher level may be viewed as a more favourable consideration.) • Criterion 3:The relevance of qualifications and competencies* (A higher relevancy may be viewed as a more favourable consideration.)
Recruitment & Selection Short-listing Developing a SCORING MATRIX for purposes of short-listing (Based on a competency model approach) Area of Competence Element of Competence Core Competency/ function Knowledge Scale Score Skills/expertise Scale Score Experience/exposure Scale Score
Recruitment & Selection Short-listing Developing a SCORING MATRIX for purposes of short-listing (Example) Area of Competence Element of Competence Investigate complaints & produce reports thereon Knowledge Research Level, Years Numbers Quality, etc. Skills/expertise 1 to 5, etc. Data management Report-writing Experience/exposure 8
Recruitment & Selection Final selection • What is the purpose of final selection? The final selection phase, which is currently predominantly dependent on the selection interview, is to identify the most suitable candidate(s) from amongst a pool of best suited candidates (short-listed candidates) with due regard to the – • departments’ HR, Affirmative Action (AA) and strategic service delivery objectives; and • advertised post and person specifications. • What principles apply to the screening process? • A fair set of final selection criteria should apply, which should have the sole purpose of identifying the most suitable candidate(s) from a pool of best suited candidates. • Final selection criteria must be in line with and limited to what is relevant in terms of job content as well as appointment and advertised requirements. • Applicants should be informed on the criteria that apply and it should be applied to all applicants in a consistent manner. • Any waivers (i.e. applicants being selected without meeting final selection requirements) should be fully motivated and approved and be properly documented as prescribed by PSR VII C.1 and C.2. • The various activities (see Figure 6 p.38) of the final selection process should be documented and put on record.
Recruitment & Selection Final selection What are the typical steps that should be followed in ensuring the accountable final selection of candidates? 1.Keep a list of all applicants considered for final selection. 2.Identify fair selection criteria for the final selection phase. 3.Ensure that the criteria are in line with the advertised requirements as well as the job content. 4.Ensure that each selection committee member is provided with all the relevant information pertaining to each short-listed applicant. 5.Ensure that the interviews are conducted in a fair and effective manner and that each candidate is weighed comprehensively against the requirements as advertised. 6.Ensure that a comprehensive motivation is compiled in respect of all the applicants interviewed. 7.Ensure that all applicants are informed about the outcome of the final selection phase. 8.Ensure that all relevant information is put on record.
Recruitment & Selection Final selection Where do selection committees go wrong? Committee members do not prepare themselves thoroughly Committee members are not au fait with the job content Committee members are not adequately versed in conducting interviews Selection interviews are not structured around the advertised post and person specifications
Recruitment & Selection Conclusion • Finding and holding onto competent skilled staff is critical in the public service as recruiting and retaining the best talent benefits the public service, in that service delivery is not comprised and recipient of services in the public service see the benefit as taxpayers.