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Chapter 36: Globalization & resistance
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  1. Chapter 36: Globalization & resistance Lindsey Ball & Gabbi BellamyPeriod 2

  2. Globalization: causes & Processes • Globalization • Increase in exchange and communication • International exchange • Launched globalization in the 20th century • China decides to export & start international trade • Fall of the Soviet Union • Less government control & use of free-market ideas & policies

  3. Globalization: causes & Processes • Some places remained isolated from globalization • Nationalism declines • English spreads • Becomes a world language

  4. The New Technology • Introduction of cell phones • Rapidly became popular • Miniaturization of computers  made more efficient • Email created in 1972 • Tim Berners  World Wide Web • Creation of internet • Creation of television

  5. Economic Globalization:Business organization & Investment • Stock exchange • Investments • Manufacturers and factories spread • Japanese car factories in US, Europe, & others • Operations spread to the US • German • Dutch • French

  6. Economic Globalization:Business organization & Investment • Increase in exports and imports • Multinational corporations • Expansion of business beyond political boundaries • Separation of labor • Spread of multinational corporations  pushed nations to industrialization & away from agriculture • International firms • Interest rates

  7. Economic Globalization:Business organization & Investment • American factories in Northern Mexico • Produced inexpensive goods • Wanted cheap labor and chill regulations • Not all societies benefit from globalization • Poverty in some areas • Global competition • Africa lost jobs in traditional manufacturing • Government services reduced • Gaps widen between poor and rich • “Urban slums” and labor expand

  8. Migration • International patterns • Slowing population growth by 1990s (Italy, Greece, Japan) • Multinational populations (Europe and US) • Tension grows

  9. Cultural Globalization • Increased cultural exchange by the 1990s • Mass consumer goods • Internet, art shows, scientific conferences, and symphony exchanges rise

  10. Rise of fast food • Mcdonald’s • Influenced rise of other fast food from 1970s to present • Began in Illinois 1995 • Went international (1967) in Canada and Puerto Rico • 109 countries by 1998 • Soviet Union (1990) -> demonstrated end of Cold War feud and Russian desire for international goods • Massive patronage

  11. Cultural Globalization • American television and movies • Baywatch • Mickey Mouse • National Beauty Pageant • MTV • American holidays spread • Christmas  gift giving, lights, Santa Claus • American Halloween (Trick-or-Treating) • Muslim Ramadan (month of self-denial) • American song “Happy Birthday”

  12. Cultural Globalization • Not just American • Japanese rock groups • Pokémon • Japanese heroin from a soap opera • Japanese music groups/animation • European music groups/fashion

  13. Cultural Globalization • Changes in clothing style • American blue jeans • Brand names (Western) manufactured in China • Obesity issues • Foreign models adapt to local customs

  14. Institutions of Globalization • UN activity increases (1990s) • UN Humanitarian intervention • World Health Organization • Sudden Acute Respiratory System (SARS) • International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) • Amnesty international • 1970s INGOs for human rights, labor, environmental, & other issues • Rape seen as a war crime (1990s)

  15. Economic Institutions of Globalization • World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) • Began after WWII -> promote trade • Offered loans, usually with economic reform • Main promoters of capitalist global economy • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Wanted lower tariffs and bigger economic coordination

  16. Protest & Economic Uncertainties • Protest movement • Some violence • Seattle (1999) • Rising issues by protesters around the world • Protesters believed environment was being hurt by this economic globalization • Cheap labor another concern • Widespread consumerism • Believed rich benefited and not the rest of the world

  17. Nationalism & new Religious Currents • Nationalism  against globalization • Traditions taken away with globalization • Result  Japan uses chopsticks • French stop English integration into French language • Europe controls immigration • United States  doesn’t support all international treaties

  18. Nationalism & new Religious Currents • Religion challenged globalization most • Communism falls  people revert back to old beliefs • i.e. Orthodox Christianity and Protestant fundamentalists (Latin America)

  19. Nationalism & new Religious Currents • Fundamentalism • Hinduism, Christianity, & Islam • Gave women more freedom • Wanted to go back to their primary religion • Supported by urban groups • Religions collide • Terrorism based on religion

  20. The Global Environment • Globalization caused unfamiliar environmental issues • Human impact • Not afraid of how the push for economic globalization affected the environment • Water shortage • Smoke

  21. Environmental Issues as Global Concerns • Industrial revolution caused Greenhouse Effect caused global warming • Methane • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Climate changes

  22. Disease & Projecting From Trends • SARS & AIDS Epidemic • Big Changes in population • Stabilization (2050) • Larger ratio of older citizens

  23. Key COncepts • 6.1 – I • D – World Health Organization • 6.1 – III • A – AIDS, SARS, Stabilization • 6.3 – II • B – INGOs, IMF • D – NAFTA