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Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s

Section 4:. Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s. SSUSH 20a-d, 24a. SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.

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Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s

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  1. Section 4: Isolation v. Globalization in the 1940’s, 50’s and 60’s SSUSH 20a-d, 24a

  2. SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s. a. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.

  3. Rebuilding Europe • U.S. Commitment to Europe • Rebuild» Marshall Plan • Protect» NATO, U.S. troops in Germany, Turkey

  4. Rebuilding Europe • Marshall Plan [European Recovery Program] • Proposed by George Marshall in a speech on June 5, 1947 • Goal: Rebuild Europe • More than $12,000,000,000 ($12 billion) invested in Western Europe from 1948-1951 DID YOU KNOW: A 2002 survey of political scientists and historians by Paul Light of the Brookings Institute named the Marshall Plan as the most significant American achievement from World War II to the year 2000.

  5. George C. Marshall (1880-1959) • U.S. Army Chief of Staff • 1939-1945, during WWII • Secretary of State • 1947-1949 • Designed Marshall Plan • Time Man of the Year ’47 • Nobel Peace Prize ‘53

  6. Counties receiving aid from the Marshall Plan Courtesy of

  7. Countries in eastern Europe, Soviet satellite nations, turned down Marshall Plan aid.

  8. U.S. vs. Communism • Cold War Origins: • Division of Europe • U.S. and U.S.S.R. allies during WWII • U.S.S.R. turns eastern Europe into a series of “satellite nations” • “Iron Curtain” – idea that Europe was divided in half, first presented in speech by Churchill (Fulton, MO 1946) • Atomic Weapons • U.S. deployed vs. Japan in WWII • U.S.S.R. sought to have their own

  9. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.”– Winston Churchill

  10. U.S. vs. Communism • Truman Doctrine • U.S. will support countries who are fighting communism • “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” • Containment Becomes known as...

  11. U.S. vs. Communism • Containment • Origins • Fear of Soviet Union • Communism spreading • Ex. Greece – 1947 • Implications • See next slide

  12. Korean War Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War Vietnam War Angolan Civil War Sandinistas Soviet Invasion / mujahadeen Containment • U.S. Policy that would attempt to stop Communist expansion throughout the world • Would lead to U.S. involvement in: • Korea: 1950-1953 • Cuba: 1961-1963 • Vietnam: 1965-1975 • Cambodia: 1969-1972 • Angola: 1975 • Nicaragua: 1977-1984 • Afghanistan: 1979-1989

  13. Berlin Airlift (June 24, 1948 –May 12, 1949) • Berlin is divided into Soviet and Western spheres • Soviets block Western supplies • U.S. Air Force and Royal Air Force provide 13,000 tons of supplies daily by air

  14. U.S. vs. Communism • Communism in China • Mao Zedong’s Communist Party fully defeats Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Party on October 1, 1949 • Nationalists forced onto island of Formosa, becomes known as Taiwan vs.

  15. U.S. vs. Communism • Foundation of NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization] • Formed in 1949 to defend against Soviet aggression in Europe • Original Members: • Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, & United States

  16. U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • Background: • Korea ruled by Japan from 1910-1945 • Divided after WWII along the 38th parallel: • U.S. occupied south • U.S.S.R. occupied north • North Korea: • Communist since 1948 • Invades south (6/25/50) • U.N. passes resolution calling for intervention to help South

  17. U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • First Phase: • Communist invasion • S. Korea troops surrounded at Pusan

  18. U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • Second Phase: • U.N. counterattack • Landing at Inchon

  19. U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • Second Phase: • U.S./U.N. forces approach Yalu R., the border with China

  20. U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • Third Phase: • China enters the war (Oct. 1950) • Invades across Yalu R. and forces American troops back

  21. Progress of the Korean War U.S. vs. Communism • Korean War (1950-1953) • Stalemate: • U.S./U.N. counterattack gets close to 38th parallel • Pres. Eisenhower gets North & South Korea to agree to armistice (July ‘53)

  22. U.S. vs. Communism • Warsaw Pact • Soviet response to NATO • Formed in 1955 • Original Members: • Soviet Union, Albania (until 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany (until 1990), Hungary, Poland, Romania

  23. U.S. vs. Communism • Other Events Worldwide • Iran (1951) • CIA sponsored coup overthrows Mohammad Mosadeq and replaces him with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahvali • Guatemala (1954) • CIA sponsored coup overthrows Jacabo Arbenz Guzman and replaces him w/ pro-U.S. gov’t

  24. U.S. vs. Communism • Other Events Worldwide • Suez Crisis (1956) • Egypt nationalizes Suez canal; Israel, Britain and France invade; U.S.S.R. threatens war – U.S. brokers peace deal, Eisenhower Doctrine: aid to any Middle East country resisting Communism • Poland/Hungary (1956) • Pro-democracy protests demand new, representative government; crushed by Soviet troops

  25. 2nd “Red Scare” • House Un-American Activities Committee • Set up to investigate possible Communists • Example: • Movie industry • Hollywood Ten – went to jail rather than talk to committee • Use of blacklists – kept certain people from working • Resistence to Red Scare/McCarthyism • Arthur Miller’s “Crucible”

  26. 2nd “Red Scare” • Julian and Ethyl Rosenberg • Accused of being Soviet spies, executed in 1953 • Leader of the 2nd Red Scare: Joe McCarthy

  27. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) • U.S. Senator ‘47-’57 (R-Wisconsin) • Argued that America was infiltrated with Communists • Name gives us term “McCarthyism” Making accusations without evidence, as McCarthy was often accused of doing

  28. U.S. vs. Communism • Cuban Revolution • Background: • Freed after Spanish-American War, but the US was given the right to intervene (Platt Amendment) • Became a center of tourism • Political unrest – eventually, ruled by a dictator (Fulgencio Batista) • 26th of July Movement, led by Fidel Castro, overthrows the Batista government

  29. U.S. vs. Communism • Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) • CIA-backed invasion of Cuban exiles • Goal: Remove Castro from power • Invasion fails, defeated within 3 days

  30. U.S. vs. Communism • Bay of Pigs (April 17–19, 1961) • Results: • Embarrassing to U.S. government, Pres. Kennedy • Moves Castro closer to U.S.S.R.

  31. U.S. vs. Communism • Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) • Response to Bay of Pigs • U.S.S.R. moves nuclear missiles into Cuba • U.S. spy planes see missiles, alert gov’t • U.S. demands U.S.S.R. remove missiles • Establishes a “quarantine” around Cuba – all ships will be searched on their way to Cuba • U.S.S.R. threatens a war

  32. Adlai Stevenson presenting U.S. photos of missiles to United Nations, Oct. 25, 1962

  33. U.S. vs. Communism • Cuban missile crisis (Oct./Nov. 1962) • U.S.S.R. and U.S. reach an agreement to avoid war • Soviets withdraw nuclear weapons • U.S. promises to never invade Cuba • [SECRET] U.S. promises to withdraw missiles in Turkey

  34. U.S. vs. Communism • Vietnam War (1965-1975) • Background: • French colony (1883-1940) • Japanese colony (1940-1945) • French colony (1945-…) • Vietminh – “League for the Independence of Vietnam” • Led by Ho Chi Minh (“He Who Enlightens,” born Nguyen That Thanh) • Fought for independence from France • U.S. supported France…why? Ho Chi Minh’s Communist beliefs and connections – lived in both China and U.S.S.R.

  35. U.S. vs. Communism • Vietnam War (1965-1975) • U.S. support for France became known as the “Domino Theory” • If one country fell to communists, others would quickly follow

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