Concept of Characterization and Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources Subhransu Pan Department of Animal Production and Management W. B.University of Animal & Fishery Sciences
Farm Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) include all animal species, breeds and strains (and their wild relatives) that are of economic, scientific and cultural interest to humankind in terms of food and agricultural production for the present or in the future.
There are some 40 species and 7616 breeds of AnGR that have been domesticated during the past 10,000 to 12,000 years.
Genetic Diversity in AnGR in India(Number of breeds) NBAGR, 2009
Breeds reported from West Bengal Cattle- Siri Goat- Bengal Sheep- Garole, Chotanagpuri, Bonpala Pig- Ghoongroo Fowl- Haringhata Black, Aseel
With the introduction of industrial farm production bio-diversity is vanishing at rapid rate; every year about 34,000 plant and 5,200 animal species disappear, a rate 50-100 timeshigherthan the losses expected through natural processes. * About 1,000 of the 7,616 recognized livestock & poultry breeds extinct in the last 100 years, and 300 of these alone during the last 15 years.* Another 2,000 breeds are at stake if no countermeasures for their conservation are taken.
Major reasons behind heritage loss: • Non-adoption of breeding plan and unrestricted interbreeding among different breeds. • Growing trend of global reliance on a limited number of selected breeds. • Degradation of ecosystems. • Fluctuating market requirements. • Diseases and natural disasters. • Political unrest and instability
Strategies for Characterization & Conservation • Identification and listing of all the available animal genetic resources. • Breed description and characterization to understand their unique qualities and potential contributions. • Prioritizing the breed for characterization and conservation based on their population structure, economic utility and genetic diversity. • Establishment of breed societies for conservation of the breed in-situ. • Creation of data-base on indigenous animal genetic resources. • Development of technology for collection and freezing of genetic material. • Documentation and creation of mass awareness.
Use of Characterization by Molecular Genetic tools • Genetic distinctness of breed/ population • Inbreeding level in the population • Population bottleneck in the past • Evolutionary pattern of the breed/ population • Genetic endangerment level
Bonpala Sheep Chotanagpuri Sheep Garole Sheep
Siri Aseel Haringhata Black