ABC: The Problem-Solution Agenda. A Presentation On Street Dog Population Control Before the Hon Lokayuktha,Bangalore By ABC Centres on Tuesday, 02.07.2002. Past Strategies. BMP had adopted a policy of mass killing of dogs by electrocution for the past 60 years. (1939 to 1999)
ABC: The Problem-Solution Agenda A Presentation On Street Dog Population Control Before the Hon Lokayuktha,Bangalore By ABC Centres on Tuesday, 02.07.2002
Past Strategies • BMP had adopted a policy of mass killing of dogs by electrocution for the past 60 years. (1939 to 1999) • About 160 dogs per day, about 50,000 per year. • Lakhs of dogs- male, female, lactating mothers, pregnant mothers, puppies are caught and killed. • This went on & on & on ….
The Result of Electrocution Inspite of killing more than 25,00,000 dogs: • Dog Population continued to increase • Dog bites continued to increase • Deaths due to rabies continued to increase Aptly in WHO document, to quote Dr K Bogel, Chief Veterinary Public Health Unit, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland & J.A. Hoyt, President, WSPA state that “All too often, authorities confronted with the problems caused by these dogs have turned to mass destruction in the hope of finding a quick solution, only to discover that the destruction had to continue, year after year with no end in sight”.
Let’s Examine Why Killing fails? • Dog for dog replacement every time a dog is killed. • Bangalore, an expanding city: dogs moving in from the outskirts in search of easy access to food • Example: Kiran Koshy,34, an employee of Lintas says, “I know the dogs on my street were taken away twice to be killed. Today, I see 15 dogs more”. • The pattern was the same in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkatta, Jaipur, Vishakapatnam, Goa, Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Mysore, Mangalore, Hubli, etc, etc. • The pattern has been the same in China: the closest to India by way of population and area.
Why do dogs bite? • During the mating season, rivalry among male dogs for the female is high • The female dog is aggressive, being hounded by packs of males • The female while protecting her litter of puppies • Provocation from humans: chased, pelted with stones, teased
ABC: The Credentials Test • On sterilising 70% of the street dog population, it gets stabilised • Actively recommended by the WHO, specially for Asian countries • Tried and tested in Jaipur, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai,Kolkatta, Vishakapatnam, Goa, Secunderabad, Hyderabad. • Adopted and followed on a war footing in Pune, Mysore, Mangalore, Hubli, Darjeeling, Kota, Ajmer, Jamshedpur, Vishakapatnam, Jodhpur, Baroda, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Jamshedpur, Nagapattinam, Salem, Kanchipuram, (TN), Nellore, Tirupati, Anantpur district (AP), Pondicherry, Jallandhar, to name a few
ARV: Credentials Test • As per WHO once 70% of Dog Population has been vaccinated death due to Rabies stops. • Further it has also been pointed out by Dr F.-X. Meslin of the Dept of Communicable Diseases Surveillance of WHO, • "Rabies elimination by vaccination of the dog population is the most cost-beneficial strategy". (Source : APCRI Journal, Vol, I, Issue 2, 2000)
4th International Symposium on Rabies Control in Asiaorganized with the co-sponsorship of theWorld Health Organization -- • "Elimination of rabies in humans requires control of rabies in dogs.” Vaccination of dogs is a cost-effective means for achieving this goal and may be THE only long-term solution to the problem of rabies in humans. • www.who.int/emc/diseases/zoo/rabies_symposium1.html
Benefits of ABC/ARV programme • The following benefits are observed in cities following ABC/ARV programme : • Reduction in dog population • Reduction in dog bite cases • Reduction in rabies deaths
Advantage ABC • Permanent, one time solution • Dogs when returned to their streets prevent new dogs from coming in as they are territorial by nature • Familiarity with the residing people: therefore keep to themselves • Control the rodent population, guard the streets • The average life of the street dog is only 4-5 years. • Dog bites come down
Learned Judges of India favour ABC/ARV • High Courts all over India unanimously favour Sterilization/Vaccination inspite of local laws favouring Killing of dogs Examples include • Delhi High Court Suit No. 1246/92. • Hyderabad-Secunderabad High Court WP No. 18669 of 1994 • Vishakhapatnam High Court WP 5483 of 1997 • Jaipur High Court. • Goa High Court WP No. 373 of 1998 • Mumbai High Court WP No. 1596 of 1998 • Karnataka High Court WP 1921 of 1991 • Karnataka High Court WP 1970 & 37359 of 2001
The Jaipur Example • After Jaipur High Court Judgement in 1994 ABC/ARV was started and has continued without hinderance from public, media or municipal authorities. The results spectacular: • No Rabies death for past 4 years. • Dog bites reduced from 2500 in 1994 to about 100 in 2001. • Most visitors to Jaipur comment that Jaipur street dogs are the healthiest in India and in far better conditions than in other towns and cities that do not have ABC programme. • Jaipur project is known world wide as a successful pioneering project.
Bangkok goes the Jaipur and Bangalore way • Bangkok's stray dogs to be sterilised and microchipped • BANGKOK, March 12,02 (AFP) - The plan calls for the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority's Health Department and three universities to work together on catching and neutering the city's estimated 120,000 dogs. • Stray dogs "are a major problem for the whole of Bangkok," said health department director Krit Hiranras. Around 3,50,000 people were bitten by dogs considered to be potentially infected with rabies last year, according to the Ministry of Public Health. • A male dog would cost around 400 baht (nine dollars) to sterilise, while a female would cost 500 baht, Krit said, with the total cost of 54 million baht (INR 6 Crores) to be footed by the city authorities. • A cull is deemed unacceptable in the predominantly Buddhist country. Source: by Agence France-Presse.
Fethiye,Turkey adopts ABC/ARV • The Fethiye Stray Dog Project is the first of its kind in southwestern Turkey. It is a locally based, professionally managed operation that takes in strays, gives them vaccinations and medical care, sterilizes them, then releases them back to the streets once they are healthy. • In its first year, the project significantly reduced the number of incidents involving aggressive dogs. Its ongoing success has encouraged the municipality of Fethiye to increase its support for the project. • The Fethiye Stray Dog Project offers localities throughout Turkey and the world a proven model program that can reduce stray dog overpopulation, improve the health of individual animals, and reduce human-animal conflicts. • www.ifaw.org
How Sri Lanka, Thailand have reduced incidences of rabies • Developing Asian countries like Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Philippines have seen marked reduction in rabies cases, NOT BECAUSE OF DOG DESTRUCTION CAMPAIGNS but because of Vaccinations. • It is up to us to either copy cruel practices which does not change rabies scenario or to adopt scientific policies which benefit humans more.
Why Rabies Exists in Dog unfriendly Pakistan? According to Dr. Naseem Salahuddin, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi “The Incidence of Dog Bites from potentially rabid dogs is rising alarmingly ….. great public anxiety …... In Karachi, with a population of 13 million, the major referral centers including Govt. Hospitals report 55-60 cases of Dog bite per day and private hospitals 3-5 per day. Periodic dog destruction campaigns in large cities have not significantly reduced the number of dog bite cases. The incidence of Rabies in Karachi was estimated to be 9 per million population”. Source: WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000.5
Animal Bites and RabiesSituation in IranM. Zeynali DVM, MPH,* A. Fayaz DVM, PhD,** A. Nadim MD, PhD****Department General of Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran • In Iran, the number of reported animal bites has increased dramatically from 66,370 in 1987 to 183,000 in 1997”. • “Although the number of animal bites in our country is increasing, this rise is commensurate with the population growth rather than a genuine rise in prevalence”. • Source: www.sums.ac.ir
Afganistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia Iran Iraq Jordan North Korea Nepal Saudi Arabia Syria Ukraine Uzbekistan Yemen Similar is the situation in some of the following Asian Countries
An Overview of Killer Diseases • Infectious diseases are the world biggest killer of children and adults. • Six diseases cause 90% of infectious disease deaths and rabies is not one of them. • Prominent killer diseases: • HIV/AIDS – 336 Lakhs, with no cure in Horizon. • Pneumonia – 35 Lakhs • Diarrheoal diseases – 20 Lakhs • TB – 15 Lakhs/year • Malaria – 10 Lakhs/year • Measles – 9 Lakhs One in two deaths in developing countries per hour is because of these diseases. 1500 people die per hour, more than 50% children under 5. Source: www.who.int
To recap A terrific cohesive movement taking shape with NGO services complementing BMP’s efforts. • Dog Population under Decline • Dog Bites under Decline • Death due to rabies is NIL in Bangalore. Highlights of BMP action plan • Garbage to be tacked aggressively. • Awareness programmes that will generate public support and participation in the ABC Programme: tackle public ignorance, spreading of rumours and false information. • Vaccination and Licensing to be intensified.
ABC: The Pro-Person Programme Thank you for your time