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Automatic Generation of Animated Presentations

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  1. Automatic Generation of Animated Presentations Gur Wizenfeld Advanced Software Tools Seminar – June 2004

  2. Agenda • Introduction to animated presentations generation • Stating the problem • Applications • Solution Considerations • Approaches • Hierarchical task decomposition (Karp & Feiner) Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  3. Methodology • Purpose • Introduce the problem and its complexity • Introduce and evaluate various solution approaches • Main Resources • Steven Drucker, Intelligent Camera Control for Graphical Environments [3]. • Peter Karp and Steven Feiner, Issues in the Automated Generation of Animated Presentations [5]. • Peter Karp and Steven Feiner, Automated Presentation Planning Using Task Decomposition with Heuristic Reasoning [6]. • D.A. Friedman and Y. A. Feldman, “Knowledge-Based Cinematography and its Applications,” Proc. 16th European Conf. Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004), August 2004 [4]. • David Christianson et al., Declarative Camera Control for Automatic Cinematography [2]. • Maneesh Agrawala, “Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions”, SIGGRAPH 2003 [1]. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  4. Introduction to Animated Presentations Generation

  5. Stating the Problem • Given a script, describing a dynamic virtual 3D environment, generate an animated presentation of the script’s relevant information. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  6. Example: A Soccer Game • Versatile content • Versatile style • Slow motion • Multiple camera angles • Textual annotations • Dynamic • Parallel occurrences • Real-time (unpredictable) Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  7. Stating the Problem (Detailed) • Environment • Spatial organization of 3D objects • 3D representation of objects (e.g., polygonal mesh) • Dynamic • Objects may be capable of modifying the environment. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  8. Stating the Problem (Detailed) • Script • Written in a formal language • Describes all modifications to the environment over time • Possibly annotated • Possibly unpredictable (e.g., in interactive applications) Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  9. 14:46 Stating the Problem (Detailed) • Presentation • A description of every frame of the animated presentation • A combination of viewports • The contents of each viewport is generated by rendering the environment from a virtual camera’s point of view. • Specifying camera parameters for each viewport in each frame is sufficient. • Possible extensions: • Audio • Textual annotations • Lighting Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  10. Applications: 3D Visualization • Virtual environment walkthroughs • Architecture • Virtual malls • Scientific Visualization • Large multidimensional datasets exploration • Medical imaging • Weather simulation Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  11. Applications: Entertainment • Computer animated movies • Games • Highly interactive  Unpredictable script • Rich 3D environment • Fast Paced • MUDs • Parallel & distributed • Raises the need for automated summaries Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  12. Applications: Design & Planning • CAD • Manufacturing process planning • Animation generation Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  13. Solution Considerations

  14. Solution Considerations: User Task • Exploration • Orientation • Navigation • Search/Wander • Planning • Control & Teleoperation Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  15. Solution Considerations:Degree of Interaction • Frequency of interaction • Continuous vs. autonomous • Style of interaction • Direct control of camera vs. symbolic specification Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  16. Solution Considerations: Supporting Cognitive Capabilities • Presentation viewing and understanding is based on complex underlying perceptive and cognitive mechanisms. • Motion from still images • 3D spatial relations from 2D projections • Recognition • Attention • Memory • (Story understanding) • A comprehensive cognitive model would help, but is difficult to construct. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  17. Solution Considerations:Collective Cinematic Experience • Collective human experience of cinematic expression has formed a cinematic language. • Grammar • Rules • Idioms • An Idiomis a stereotypical way to capture some specific action as a series of shots. • Evolving genres Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004 • Trevor Goring www.famousframes.com

  18. Solution Considerations: Continuity • Avoid “jump cuts” (i.e., cuts between which the camera rotates about the object by less than 30.) • Do not interrupt a steady, flowing action with a cut (or use time overlapping shots.) • Maintain the relative screen position of an object across cuts. • Avoid “line crossing” in a cut (or use an intermediate shot.) Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  19. Example: Avoid Line Crossing • Andrew Burward-Hoy www.famousframes.com Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  20. Presentation Hierarchy Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  21. Select Content Relevance Summarization Map Script-time to presentation-time Parallelism Pacing Determine Presentation Hierarchy Structuring shots to scenes, etc. Transitions Viewports layout Requirements Summary Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  22. Requirements Summary • Camera placement • Visibility • Occlusion avoidance • Projection size • Recognition • Preferred viewing directions (“gaze vectors”) • Maximization of geometric information • Spatial relations • Distortion avoidance • Selection of geometric features • Obey cinematic conventions • Use idioms correctly • Maintain continuity • Adhere to genre rules • Take into account cognitive capabilities and limitations. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  23. Script Understanding & Analysis Presentation Generation   Presentation Rendering  Solution Map Script  Presentation  Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  24. Hierarchical Task Decomposition Automated Presentation Planning of Animation Using Task Decomposition with Heuristic Reasoning P. Karp and S. Feiner

  25. Solution Highlights • Creates a complete presentation structure (from film level to single shot level.) • Uses communicative goals to guide presentation generation. • Formalizes and uses cinematic knowledge in a straightforward manner. • Reduces redundant computational effort. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  26. Hierarchical Task Breakdown Example Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  27. Film structure hierarchy is used to guide decomposition of the presentation task. Communicative Goals define the requirements at each level. Presentation Generation Task Decomposition Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  28. ESPLANADE – Solution Testbed • Expert System for PLANning Animation, Design and Editing • Environment: crane activation in a warehouse Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  29. Presentation Processing in Levels • Scene Structuring Techniques (idioms): • Master shot discipline • How-To structure • Causal Structure Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  30. Presentation Example • Script: • Move roll-2 with the crane. • Move roll-7 with the crane. • Causal information between button pressing and crane operations. • Communicative Goals: • Show moving of roll-2. • Show moving of roll-7. • Show causal relation between pressing the “up” button and raising the crane’s hoist. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  31. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  32. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  33. Pros Provides a solution for a complete presentation hierarchy. Can be generalized to support arbitrary-depth hierarchies. Separates communicative goals from their implementation as idioms. Formalizes goals and idioms in a “natural” manner. Goals and idioms can be added. Task decomposition approach reduces computational effort. Cons Resulting presentations are rigid and predictable. Every combination of goals requires a specific idiom. Does not support conflicts between goals and idioms. Evaluation Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  34. Summary

  35. Conclusions • Use of cinematic rules is crucial. • Rules evolve  flexibility and scalability • Rules often conflict  contradiction handling • Search space can be reduced by an appropriate abstraction. • Symbolic representation is critical for usability. • Script understanding and automatic communicative goal extraction are still a long way ahead. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  36. References • Background • [1] M. Agrawala, D. Phan, J. Heiser, J. Haymaker, J. Kilngner, P. Hanrahan and B. Tversky, “Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions,” In SIGGRAPH 2003. • [2] D.B. Christianson, S.E. Anderson, L. He, D.H. Salesin, D.S. Weld and M.F. Cohen, “Declarative Camera Control for Automatic Cinematography,”Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, pages 148—155, 1996. • [3] S.M. Drucker, “Intelligent Camera Control for Graphical Environments,” PhD Thesis, MIT, 1994. • [4] D.A. Friedman and Y.A. Feldman, “Knowledge-Based Cinematography and its Applications,”Proc.16th European Conf. Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004), August • 2004 • Hierarchical Task Decomposition • [5] P. Karp and S. Feiner, “Issues in the automated generation of animated presentations,”Proceedings of Graphics Interface '90, pages 39--48, May 1990. • [6] P. Karp and S. Feiner, “Automated presentation planning of animation using task decomposition with heuristic reasoning,”Proc. of Graphics Interface 93, pages 118-127, 1993. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  37. Thank You

  38. Detours

  39. Detour: Advances in computer games Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  40. Detour: Idioms • An Idiomis a stereotypical way to capture some specific action as a series of shots. (AcFilmIdiom name approach-idiom :parameter (AcParamApproach :actor1 :actor2 :start :stop) (AcFilmShot name shot1 (AcFragGoBy name frag1 :time ?start :primary-moment beginning :entry-pos center :exit-pos out-left ...) ...) ...) Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  41. Detour: Idioms Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  42. Crane Tilt Zoom Roll Pan Truck Dolly Detour: Rendering {X, Y, Z, Rx, Ry, Rz, fov}7 Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004

  43. Detour: Rendering • Transforms objects from a perspective view in the world space into the screen’s display space. Gur Wizenfeld - Advanced Software Tools Seminar 2004