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Chapter 7 Intercollegiate Athletics

Chapter 7 Intercollegiate Athletics

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Chapter 7 Intercollegiate Athletics

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  1. Chapter 7 Intercollegiate Athletics

  2. Origins of Intercollegiate Athletics Governance College sport, as we know it, started with a challenge that would “test the superiority of the oarsmen” of Harvard University and Yale University in 1852 During the latter half of the 1800s, college sport was essentially run by the students By the early part of the 1900s, a shift toward “professional” coaches, overspecialization, and an emphasis on winning against perennial rivals was well underway. Prompted by the deaths and charges of brutality in in college football, President Theodore Roosevelt hosted two White House conferences on football in 1905. Roosevelt’s decree led to the formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS) March 1906 and became known as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 191o.

  3. National Collegiate Athletic Association Largest and most influential college sport governing body Membership of 1288 colleges and universities, conferences, and sport organizations NCAA rules and regulations focus on amateurism, recruiting, eligibility, playing and practice seasons, athletically related financial aid, championships, and enforcement Three competitive divisions: I, II, and III (see figure 7.1 in the text) Division III is the largest of all three divisions, comprising 40%

  4. Other National Governing Bodies

  5. National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) 291 Member Institutions Open to four-year and upper-level two-year colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. First national organization to offer postseason opportunities to Black student-athletes First national organization to sponsor both women’s and men’s intercollegiate athletics

  6. National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA) “Maintenance, enhancement, and promotion of intercollegiate athletic competition with a Christian perspective” 100 institutions in two divisions

  7. Membership Option for Two Year Institutions • 1.NAIA • 2. American Indian Higher Education Consortium Athletic Commission 36 schools representing 1000 athletes • 3. National Junior College Athletic Association 517 schools representing 50,000 athletes • 4. California Community College Commission on Athletics 103 schools representing 25,000 athletes • Northwest Athletic Association of Community Colleges 35 schools representing 3,614 athletes • Nearly half of all two-year institutions offer intercollegiate athletic programs to their students

  8. Athletic Conferences The basic function of a conference is to establish rules and regulations that support and sustain a level playing field for member institutions while creating in-season and post-season competitive opportunities. In the modern era, they also negotiate television contracts and distribute the proceeds and any other revenue they agree to share. The vast majority of college and universities seek membership in conferences that will enhance the prestige and status of their programs and provide competition with peer institutions that are similarly situated financially, academically, geographically, and philosophically.

  9. Basics of College Sport Finance Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act It determines whether spending on men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletic programs are equitable and in conformance with Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 Being able to determine the difference between the capacity of an athletics department to generate revenue versus turn a profit is an important skill for an athletics administrator. Most athletic programs, however, are not profitable. The number of schools that generate revenue in excess of expenses may be as low as ten. Large gap in the capacity of programs in Division I to generate revenue 78% of men’s athletic budgets are consumed by football and men’s basketball. The Division III infrastructure is not designed to generate revenue

  10. Intercollegiate Athletics Administrators

  11. Director of Athletics Oversight may include budget and finance, facilities, risk management, television contracts, compliance with laws and regulations of national and conference governing bodies, academic progress of college athletes, communication with the media, scheduling, marketing games and other events, corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, community relations, alumni relations, campus relations, fund-raising, and personnel management, including the hiring and termination of coaches. Candidates for AD positions are increasingly scrutinized in terms of their business credentials and are often recruited because of them

  12. Associate or Assistant Athletics Director In many respects, the associate or assistant AD supports the AD in achieving the overall mission of the department by working closely with the AD and overseeing specific areas, such as marketing, fund-raising, event management, or athletics communications.

  13. First Line Managers

  14. Academic Coordinator Advise athletes in addressing the dual and sometimes conflicting demands of being both a student and an athlete. A. Freshmen eligibility standard B. Academic progress rate (APR) C. The 40/60/80 rule

  15. Business and Finance Manager Recommends and implements policies, procedures, and methods of accounting that ensure strict compliance with sound business practices in accordance with the rules and regulations the institution, the conference, and the national governing body.

  16. Other Jobs (First-Line Managers) Compliance Officer Development and Public Relations Director Event and Facility Manager Marketing and Promotions Director Sports Information Director Ticket Manager Senior WomensAdministrator Equipment Manager

  17. Administrators in Governing Bodies Conference commissioners appear to be more likely to hold degrees in Journalism and Communication while exhibiting a broader range of experiences.

  18. Ethics in Intercollegiate Athletics A. The financial stakes in college sports have risen rapidly. B. Athletes themselves are prevented from receiving compensation beyond the limits of their scholarships C. Exploitation of athletes