Science 10 – Unit 1: Ecology Unit 1 – Diversity in Ecosystems Ecology Pre-unit warmupq’s 1) Convey what you believe an Ecosystem is, providing an example of one close to your house. Describe your ecosystem in detail. 2) Describe a food chain which exists within your ecosystem. How does energy cycle through this food chain? What is an ecosystem? a term used to describe the relationships among the many species living in an environment and the relationship among those organisms and the non-living components of the environment. Keyword: relationships
Unit 1 – Ecoweather • Why is this unit important? • Scientific literacy • Protecting our environment • It’s interesting! • Movie clip (
THE SILENCE OF THE FROGS Chapter 1.1
The Silence of the frogs • Frogs are amphibians, meaning they live both in the water and on land. • They have been around for more than 400 million years, surviving ice ages and mass extinctions. • Around the world, they can be found in most ecosystems that include water • Wetlands, marshes, deserts, lakes, oceans, forests.
Why are scientists concerned about frogs? The frog is an indicator species, meaning their health is a good indicator of the health of the ecosystem in which they live.
Why is this? • Frogs are sensitive to pH, Ultraviolet rays, and pollution. • They live both in the water and on land (two different lives). • Tadpoles in the water • Adult frogs on land • Since they are in two ecosystems, they are also in two FOOD CHAINS.
Silence of the frogs cont... FOOD CHAIN– a step-by-step sequence linking organisms that feed on each other, starting with a food source such as a plants (producers), and continuing with animals and other living things that feed on plants (consumers)
Parts of a food chain • All food chains start with the sun as its source of energy. • Producer - an organism that can make their own food to give themselves energy. • Examples: Plants, Algae
Parts of a food chain cont... • Consumer - an organism that must get its energy by eating another organism (can not make their own food ) • Example: animals
Parts of a food chain cont... • Food chains also involve Decomposers, which cycle nutrients back through food chains. • Decomposer – an organism which feeds on detritus to get nutrients for their own use, releasing other nutrients into surrounding soil and water in the process. • Examples: Maggots, Bacteria
Parts of a food chain cont... Detritus – waste from plants and animals, including their dead remains. As decomposers break detritus down, the nutrients can then help plants to grow.
FROGS IN THEIR ECOSYSTEMS • What do adult frogs eat? • Mostly insects, sometimes small fish. • What animals eat frogs? • Large fish, predatory birds, reptiles, small mammals.
FROGS IN THEIR ECOSYSTEMS • What do tadpoles eat? • Algae (small, plant-like organisms) • Detritus • What animals eat tadpoles? • Water boatman, small fish • Both the adult frog and the tadpole are part of a food chain that includes Herbivores, Carnivores, and Omnivores.
Parts of a food chain cont... • Herbivore – organism which eats only plants. • Examples: Grasshoppers, Cows • Carnivore – organism which eats only other animals. • Examples: Tigers, Frogs • Omnivores – organisms which eat both plants and other animals. • Examples: Humans, Bears
The Last Frog Video • After viewing the video, respond to the following: • 1. List 3 reasons cited in the video that helps explain the disappearance of the frogs. • 2. What are some things that WE can do as a society to help prevent further declination of the frog species?
1. LOSS OF HABITAT • This is mentioned as the main cause • We are destroying the water with pollution • We are cutting down forests • We are building highways and cities between the two ecosystems.
2. AIR AND WATER QUALITY • Frogs have thin skin and no protection from the sun. • Frogs breathe through their skin and by lungs. • Acid rain therefore can go through their skin • This affects the ability to reproduce
3. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION • The thin skin is also susceptible to UV radiation. • Frogs have adapted by developing a black skin and laying black eggs. • Scientists don’t believe that frogs will adapt as fast as global warming. • Why not? They beat the ice age!!!
4. CLIMATE CHANGES • Human activities are causing changes in the climate. • Increased use of fossil fuels ( coal, oil, gas) • Climate changes affect the local ecosystems.
Class Work P.
Section 1.1 Silence of the Frogs (Pg. 10-13 Wksheet) Questions 1-11