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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Heat' - mdrscience


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Presentation Transcript
slide1

HEAT

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide2

Is energy

HEAT

You cannot see it

But you can see its effect on matter

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

heat makes matter change
Heat makes matter change…….

temperature

state

volume

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide4

ALL MATTER is made of PARTICLES

Liquids

Solids

Gases

These particles are continually moving

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide5

Temperature

Is the amount of movement of particles

High temperatures

More movement

Low temperatures

Less movement

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide6

There is a temperature

When the particles

STOP MOVING

This is called ABSOLUTE ZERO

- 273 o C

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide7

Temperature is measured using a thermometer

The bulb contains a liquid

This heats up and expands

into a capillary tube

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide8

Celsius calibrated the thermometer

USING WATER

He defined 0oC as

100

the freezing point of water

And 100oC as

0

the boiling point of water

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide9

Temperatures can be changed in by….

Adding Heat,

+ Q

Removing Heat, - Q

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide10

Or by….

Doing work, W

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide11

Thermal equilibrium

Heat flows

Until

In a closed container

Between objects

They reach the same temperature

100oC

30oC

0oC

30oC

slide12

Changing state: liquid to gas

As particles in a liquid

are heated

They move faster

Until

eventually

They start to escape

Into the gas State

This is called evaporation

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide13

Changing state: solid to liquid

Temperature measured

Ice is heated and its

The temperature increasesagain

The heat is used to help particles

Latent HEAT of FUSION

Change state

At first its temperature increases

Until it starts to melt

This energy is called

When ALL the ice has melted

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide14

Changing state: liquid to gas

100 oC

As the water is heated….

its temperature increases….

until it starts to boil…..

This happens at about 100 oC

Energy is then used up

To help particles escape

From a liquid into the gas state

This energy is called ….

LATENT HEAT of EVAPORATION

0 oC

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide15

Heat can move in three ways

In solids

In fluids

In vacuum

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide16

Conduction

Heat is carried by FREE ELECTRONS

Metals are good heat conductors

They have many free electrons

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide17

Convection

Air near the flame

is heated and EXPANDS

its density is less than the cold air around it

And it rises

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide18

Radiation

Matter is made of particles

These particles vibrate

And emit radiation

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide19

Everything that is warmer than

absolute zero

emits radiation

EVERYTHING!

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011

slide20

The particles in my hand vibrate

And emit radiation

At 35oC the radiation isn’t visible

But a thermal camera can see it

At about 1000 oC the radiation

Becomes visible

A light bulb filament reaches

Over 3000 oC

?

© MDR PUBLISHING 2011