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# Heat and Heat Transfer

Heat and Heat Transfer. Scales of Measurement. Celsius scale – based on where water freezes (0  C) and where water boils (100  C) Kelvin scale – based on the movement of particles. Absolute Zero. At 0 K, all particle movement has ceased It is impossible to have a temperature lower than 0 K

## Heat and Heat Transfer

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1. Heat and Heat Transfer

2. Scales of Measurement • Celsius scale – based on where water freezes (0C) and where water boils (100C) • Kelvin scale – based on the movement of particles

3. Absolute Zero • At 0 K, all particle movement has ceased • It is impossible to have a temperature lower than 0 K • 0 K = -273C

4. TC=5/9 (TF-32º) • TF= TC9/5+32º • TK= TC+273.15 0ºC 10ºC 20ºC 30ºC 40ºC 50ºC 273 K 283 K 293 K 303 K 313 K 323 K

5. Kinetic-Molecular Theory • The faster particles move, the greater the kinetic energy or thermal energy.

6. Definitions • Temperature –average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance • Thermometers measure temperature • Heat – amount of energy transferred

7. Thermal equilibrium • Energy will always travel from an area of higher energy to an area of lower energy.

8. Thermal Equilibrium, cont. • Two substances with different energies transfer energy (higher  lower) until their energies are equal. • This point is “thermal equilibrium”.

9. Heat transfer • Conduction: molecular agitation; no motion as a whole  • Convection: mass motion of a fluid • Radiation: emission of EM waves, no medium needed

10. Conduction • As materials are heated, electrons gain thermal energy which means they move faster. • As the electrons in a substance collide, the energy is transferred to surrounding electrons. • The actual molecules do not change places.

11. Convection • Heating occurs due to the motion of a fluid. • When a fluid is heated, it becomes less dense and rises. The cooler air is more dense and circulates to the bottom where it is heated and begins the process again.

12. Radiation • Radiation does not require a medium to transmit energy. This type of energy is called radiant energy and it travels in electromagnetic waves. • High temperatures emit short wavelengths whereas low temperatures emit long wavelengths.

13. Specific Heat • Amount of energy that must be added to the material to raise the temperature of a unit mass one temperature unit. • The units of specific heat are J/kg·K or J/kg·°C

14. Q = mCT Q = mC (Tfinal – Tinitial) Q = Heat (J) m = mass (kg) C = Specific heat (J/kg·K or J/kg·°C) T = change in temperature (K or °C) Specific Heat Formula

15. Example #1: • A 0.400 kg block of iron is heated from 295 K to 325 K. How much heat had to be transferred to the iron if the specific heat of iron is 450 J/ kg·K?

16. Example #1: • Q = mCT • Q = (0.400 kg)(450 J/ kg·K)(325-295 K) • Q = (0.400 kg)(450 J/ kg·K)(30 K) • Q = 5400 J

17. Example #2 • . How much heat is required to raise the temperature of a 10.0 kg vat of water from 293.0 K to 373.0 K? (specific heat of water = 4180 J/kg K)

18. Q=mCT • Q= (10.0 kg)(4180 J/kg*K)(373-293) • Q= (10.00 kg)(4180 J/kg*K)(80) • Q= 3344000 J

19. Law of Conservation of Energy • Energy lost by one object must be equal to the amount gained by another object.  • Energy lost = - Energy gained • mACATA = -mBCBTB

20. Example #2: • A container has 0.50 kg of water at 15C. A 0.040 kg block of zinc at 115C is placed in the water. What is the final temperature of the system? (Czinc = 388 J/kg·C and Cwater = 4180 J/kg·C)

21. Example #2: • mACATA = -mBCBTB • (0.5)(4180)(Tf -15)= - (.04)(388)(Tf -115) • 2090(Tf -15) = - 15.52(Tf -115) • 2090 Tf - 31350 = -15.52 Tf + 1784.8 • 2105.52 Tf = 33134.8 • Tf = 15.74 ºC

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