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Curriculum and Instructional Design in Teaching Literacy for Individuals with Exceptionalities

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  1. Curriculum and Instructional Design in Teaching Literacy for Individuals with Exceptionalities EDU 9744T

  2. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24 An introduction to systemic, explicit reading instruction

  3. No assignment due on first class. • Read: Bursuck & Damer, Chapter 1. • Pre-assessment (MUST SUBMIT in BB by Feb 7, 2019) • APQ (MUST SUBMIT in BB by Feb 7, 2019) Class 1: Thursday, 1/24 Assignment due on this day

  4. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  5. Overlapping ESEA has been the development of the Common Core Standards (CCS), which started in 2009 when the National Governors Association (NGA) and Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) began to coordinate an effort to develop more rigorous standards in literacy and math instruction. Why haven’t major policy initiatives increased student achievement in reading? Explanations about why large percentages of students still do not attain minimum literacy levels echo the reasons that students are at risk in the first place: ■ These students were raised in poverty. ■ Their parents never read to them as children. ■ These students have learning disabilities. ■ English is not their first language. ■ These students were premature babies. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 3). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition.  Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  6. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  7. Marilyn Adams (1990) explained reading difficulties in terms of the various interconnected systems that help the reader decode and comprehend. The systems processing model describes the process that occurs as fluent readers simultaneously and successfully engage the following four processors as they read text: orthographic processor, phonological processor, meaning processor, and context processor. When the reader sees text on a page, the orthographic processor recognizes the visual image of words as interconnected sets of letters. The phonological processor is the system that processes the speech sounds of language. the phonological and orthographic processors must work together efficiently and fluently. The meaning processor focuses on definitions rather than the letters or sounds. This meaning processor works quickly for words the reader knows, but slower for unknown words as it connects parts of the word to meaning. Coordinating with the meaning processor, the context processor brings prior knowledge to bear on understanding the meaning of the word. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 6). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  8. The Response to Intervention (RTI) framework is to ensure that all the students. • RTI is based on a multi-tier model that enables schools to provide students with the support that the assessments indicate they need. • In a typical class, some students learn new material as fast as the teacher can teach it; other students need extra practice before they learn it; and a third group needs very deliberate teaching that slowly moves from easier skills to more difficult concepts. • Because of these differences, schools need a range of instructional options to meet the diverse needs of their students. Teaching that provides this broader range of options is known as differentiated instruction. • Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 7). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  9. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  10. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in spoken language ( Ball & Blachman, 1991). • Phonics is the teaching strategy described in this text to teach the relationships between written letters, or graphemes, and the speech sounds, or phonemes. • Phonics is the teaching strategy described in this text to teach the relationships between written letters, or graphemes, and the speech sounds, or phonemes. • Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 10). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  11. Reading fluency is the ability to read text accurately, quickly, and with expression. All three of these elements—accuracy, speed, and expression—are essential so that students can apply their fluency skills during silent reading and comprehend the text ( Chard, Pikulski, & McDonough, 2006) • Oral receptive vocabulary involves understanding the meaning of words when people speak; written receptive vocabulary concerns understanding the meaning of words that are read. Oral expressive vocabulary means using words in speaking so that other people understand you; written expressive vocabulary is communicating meaningfully through writing. • Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 12). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  12. Reading comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading instruction. • Comprehension strategies often used in tandem that help students derive meaning from text. • ■ Activate background knowledge and use it to make meaning out of text. • ■ Generate and ask questions while reading. • ■ Evaluate or draw conclusions from information in a text. • ■ Get meaning by making informed predictions. • ■ Summarize information by explaining in their own words what the text is about. • ■ Monitor comprehension, including knowing when they understand and do not understand, and using additional strategies to improve when understanding is blocked. • ■ Derive meaning of narrative and expository text by being able to identify relevant text structures. • Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 14). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  13. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  14. Class activity: form pairs and work together to complete the RTI planning form. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  15. Be sure to go into BB and read the syllabus and look at all the other information there. Class 1: Thursday, 1/24

  16. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  17. A phoneme is one of the units of sound that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. Words in the English language are made up of approximately 41 to 44 individual sounds called phonemes that are conventionally represented between slash marks. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear these smallest units of sounds in spoken language and to manipulate them at the word, syllable, and phoneme levels.. The word cat has three phonemes (/c/ /a/ /t/), as does the word shut (/sh/ /u/ /t/), and the word hope (/h/ /o - / /p/). Word-play activities, such as changing the first sound to make a new rhyming word to fit into a song or changing the last sound in a word to create another word, involve hearing and manipulating phonemes. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 41). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  18. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" /ɑː/ or "oh" /oʊ/, produced with an open vocal tract; it is median (the air escapes along the middle of the tongue), oral (at least some of the airflow must escape through the mouth), frictionless and continuant. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh" [ʃ], which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. Cruttenden, Alan (2014). Gimson's Pronunciation of English (Eighth ed.). Routledge. p. 27. ISBN9781444183092. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  19. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  20. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  21. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  22. Class 2: Thursday, 1/31

  23. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07

  24. The purpose of phonics instruction is to teach students the relationship between written letters, or graphemes, and the 41 to 44 sounds of spoken language, or phonemes. Educators who minimize the role of phonics in teaching reading argue that the English language does not incorporate a one-to-one relationship between the 41 to 44 sounds and the 26 letter symbols. For example, sometimes the sound of /e˘/, as in red, also appears as ea, as in bread. The sound /aˉ / can be written ay as in may, a_e as in made, or ai as in maid. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 82). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07

  25. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07

  26. What will it take to ensure the reading success of every child? • Effective new materials, tools, and strategies for teachers. • Extensive professional development to learn to use these strategies. • Additional staff to reduce class sizes for reading instruction and to provide tutoring for students who fall behind. • Changes in school organization for more appropriate class groupings and effective use of special education, Title I, and other supplementary resources. • District, state, and national policies to set high standards of performance, to support effective classroom instruction, and to improve teacher training programs. • Parents and other community members to support intensified efforts to improve the reading ability of all students. • Parents and guardians to ensure that their children arrive at school ready to learn every day. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07EVERY CHILD READING

  27. We need to learn more about: • identifying the most effective reading approaches, programs, methods of school and classroom organization, and intensive professional development approaches; • developing strategies for the children who do not succeed, even with high-quality instruction and tutoring; • choosing forms of tutoring that make best use of this expensive resource; • promoting effective strategies for prekindergarten and kindergarten; • determining the proper balance between phonics and meaning. (For example, it would be useful to learn the best mix between decodable and sight words in early first-grade reading materials, and it would be useful to know precisely how long and how intensively children need instruction in phonics.); • helping children who are now in the upper elementary and secondary grades who have inadequate reading skills; • developing and evaluating better strategies for children who speak languages other than English, whether they are taught in English or in their home lan" guage; • using technology for beginning reading, for upper-elementary reading, for writing, and for remediation; and • building effective extended-day and summer programs. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07

  28. THE NATIONAL READING PANEL REPORT: Practical Advice for Teachers Phonemic Awareness Summary Beginning readers benefit from instruction that teaches them to hear the sounds within words (phonemic awareness). This instruction prepares them for making the link between letters and sounds and should be kept simple, brief, and enjoyable. Phonemic awareness is taught through language songs and games and other activities that encourage students to listen for the sounds within words. Students will have successfully accomplished learning phonemic awareness when they can fully segment words with ease; for most children, this can be accomplished during kindergarten or first grade. Class 3: Thursday, 2/07

  29. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  30. From single syllable words to multisyllable words A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins. Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  31. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  32. Digraphs are two successive letters articulated as a single phoneme. Examples of digraphs include ch as in chop, th as in this, and oo as in book. A complete list of digraphs with example words containing each one is in Appendix C . Another type of letter combination, diphthongs, are vowel blends in which the first sound seems to glide into the second sound. Examples of diphthongs include ou as in mouse and oi as in boil. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 148). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  33. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  34. If, instead of syllables, you decide to divide a word into its smallest units of meaning, you have three morphemes (the smallest parts of words that have a distinctive meaning): un•believe•er ■ un means not ■ believe means to accept as real ■ er means a person who does something In this example word, believe is the foundational morpheme that establishes the basic meaning of the word. Because believe is a complete word that can stand by itself, it is called a base word. When the foundational morpheme is not a complete word, such as struct in the word construction, it is called a root. All multisyllable words have at least one base word or root. Morphemes that precede the root or base word are called prefixes; morphemes that are added to the end of the root or base word are called suffixes. In our example, un- is the prefix and - er is the suffix. Both suffixes and prefixes are categorized as affixes. For example: reseat, seating, reseating. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  35. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  36. Class 4: Thursday, 2/14

  37. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  38. Reading fluency is the ability to read text accurately, quickly, and with expression. All three of these elements—accuracy, speed, and expression—are essential so that students can apply their fluency skills during silent reading and comprehend the text ( Chard, Pikulski, & McDonough, 2011 ). If attention is consumed by decoding words, little or no capacity is available for the attention demanding process of comprehending. Therefore, AUTOMATICITY OF DECODING — a critical component of fluency — is essential for high levels of reading achievement. (p. 264 ) When readers spend their cognitive attention to intently on decoding the words they have too little cognitive energy left to think about and understand the meaning of what they are reading. If a readers read automatically with accuracy, speed, and expression, they are better able to devote their attention, memory, and cognitive focus on making connections among the ideas in the text as well as between those ideas and their background knowledge. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 188). Pearson Education. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  39. Building fluency must be broad-based, encompassing activities to strengthen students’ capacity to process information accurately and efficiently, not just at the orthographic (conventions for writing a language, including rules for spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation) and phonological levels, but at the contextual and meaning-based levels as well( Adams, 2011 ). Not until students attain automaticity in these foundational skills can they read connected text fluently and with understanding. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 188). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Fluency becomes increasingly important as students move through the grades. As students get older, they are expected to read greater amounts of more difficult material in less time. Students who read slowly, regardless of accuracy, have little chance of keeping up with their peers. They are also less likely to practice their reading, choosing other ways to spend their time such as watching television and being with friends ( Archer, Gleason, & Vachon, 2003 ). Fluency involves reading connected text and involves many more skills and processes with comprehension as the ultimate goal. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  40. The ability to read passages accurately, fluently, and expressively requires that the reader engage in a number of complex processes at the same time. The reader must translate letters into sounds, blend sounds into meaningful words, access words without thinking, make meaningful connections within and between sentences, relate text meaning to prior knowledge, and make inferences to supply missing information ( Fuchs, Fuchs, Hosp, & Jenkins, 2001). Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 189). Pearson Education. Visit the official DIBELS Next website at https://acadiencelearning.org/ reading assessment resources. Directions to administer and score the test are available at the same website, as are copies that can be downloaded at no charge. Create your own reading fluency score sheets by going to http://www.interventioncentral.org and clicking on the Reading Fluency Passages Generator. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 189). Pearson Education. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  41. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  42. RTI Primer: https://rti4success.org/sites/default/files/rtiessentialcomponents_042710.pdf Although there is a strong relationship between students’ oral reading fluency and reading comprehension, the extent to which students read with expression is also related to how well students comprehend what they are reading ( Rasinski & Samuels, 2011 ; Schwanenflugel & Benjamin, 2012 ). This ability to read text orally using appropriate phrasing, intonation, and attention to punctuation is termed prosody. Prosody is often referred to as the “music” of speech ( Hudson, Lane, & Pullen, 2005 ). The rate at which students normally make gains in reading follows a pattern (Shaywitz, 2003 ), with the greatest gains occurring in the early school years, then lessening with each subsequent grade. The rate of growth also differs within each school year, with maximum growth occurring at the beginning of the year and then tapering off toward spring ( Shaywitz, 2003 ). Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 196). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  43. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  44. Lexile measures can help teachers match students to the appropriate reading material. For more information, go to http://www.Lexile.com. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 203). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Over the course of a typical school day, students are required to read a variety of books for a number of different purposes. Selecting reading material at a level of difficulty appropriate to the activity is important. For example, text that students read with teacher support can be somewhat more difficult than material that students are expected to read independently. In either case, the material cannot be so difficult that students become frustrated. Selection of appropriate reading material is particularly important in view of the new Common Core Standards, which require that teachers incorporate a range of genres into their instruction( Haager & Vaughn, 2013 ). Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 203). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28

  45. The two most common techniques used to provide students with reading practice are oral passage reading and strategies that encourage students to read silently, such as Sustained Silent Reading (SSR). In their report, the National Reading Panel (2000) concluded that despite its broad intuitive appeal, NO EVIDENCE SUPPORTED THE USE OF SILENT READING of material of interest, either in or out of class. This finding seems to make sense when it comes to students who are at risk. These students may be reluctant to put much effort into their silent reading because reading is such a struggle for them. Finally, students who are learning to read need feedback on their performance, and teachers cannot closely monitor silent reading. Bursuck, William D.; Damer, Mary. Teaching Reading to Students Who Are At Risk or Have Disabilities: A Multi-Tier, RTI Approach (Page 205). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. Classes 5 and 6: Thursday, 2/21and 2/28