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Educational Services for Individuals with Exceptionalities Adapted Lesson Plan The Art of Teaching - Six Principles of Effective Curriculum Design Big Ideas Conspicuous strategies Mediated scaffolding Strategic integration Judicious review Primed background knowledge

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the art of teaching six principles of effective curriculum design
The Art of Teaching - Six Principles of Effective Curriculum Design
  • Big Ideas
  • Conspicuous strategies
  • Mediated scaffolding
  • Strategic integration
  • Judicious review
  • Primed background knowledge

Excerpted from Toward Successful Inclusion of Students with Disabilities: The Architecture of Instruction by Edward J. Kameenui, and Deborah Simmons(1999)

big ideas
Big Ideas
  • Concepts or principles that facilitate the most efficient and broad acquisition of knowledge
    • Focus on essential learning outcomes
    • Capture rich relationships among concepts
    • Enable learners to apply what they learn in varied situations
    • Involve ideas, concepts, principles, and rules central to higher-order learning
    • Form the basis for generalization and expansion
conspicuous strategies
Conspicuous Strategies
  • Useful steps for accomplishing a goal or task
  • Planned
  • Purposeful
  • Explicit
  • Of medium-level application
  • Most important in initial teaching of concept
mediated scaffolding
Mediated Scaffolding
  • Instructional guidance provided by teachers, peers, materials, or tasks
  • Varied according to learner needs or experiences
  • Based on task (not more than learner needs)
  • Provided in the form of tasks, content, and materials
  • Removed gradually according to learner proficiency
strategic integration
Strategic Integration
  • Integrating knowledge as a means of promoting higher-level cognition
  • Combines cognitive components of information
  • Results in a new and more complex knowledge structure
  • Aligns naturally with information (i.e, is not "forced")
  • Involves meaningful relationships among concepts
  • Links essential big ideas across lessons within a curriculum
judicious review
Judicious Review
  • Structured opportunities to recall or apply previously taught information
  • Sufficient
  • Distributed over time
  • Cumulative
  • Varied
  • Judicious, not haphazard
primed background knowledge
Primed Background Knowledge
  • Preexisting information that affects new learning
  • Aligns with learner knowledge and expertise
  • Considers strategic and proximal pre-skills
  • Readies learner for successful performance
selecting appropriate adaptations
Selecting Appropriate Adaptations
  • Determine needs of student
  • Identify learning objectives
  • Selecting priority objectives
  • Introduction of lesson
  • Identify meaningful participation
  • Closure of lesson
  • Evaluating participation and determine proficiency on objectives

determining needs of student
Determining Needs of Student
  • Identify student needs
    • Motor and sensory abilities
    • Cognitive abilities
    • Communication abilities
    • Functional life skills
identify learning objectives
Identify Learning Objectives
  • Review educational history
  • Review current goals and objectives
  • Selecting mutual objectives
  • Adapting lesson components to meet objectives
selecting priority objectives
Selecting Priority Objectives
  • What is the primary need area
  • What is the primary outcome of the lesson
  • Match the primary need with the primary outcome
introduction of lesson
Introduction of Lesson
  • Capture attention of students
  • Generate an genuine interest
  • Review objectives
  • Review materials needed (if any)
  • Review expectations
identify meaningful participation
Identify Meaningful Participation
  • Determine level of participation
  • Ensure at least minimal level of meaningful participation
  • Assure necessity of participation by all
  • Reinforce meaningful participation
closure of lesson
Closure of Lesson
  • Wrap up activity
  • Summarize work completed
  • Reinforce participation
  • Check for understanding
evaluating participation
Evaluating Participation
  • Determine proficiency on objectives
  • Reflect on process
  • Determine positive outcomes
  • Consider negative outcomes
  • Level - Middle school
  • Class - Science
  • Unit - Circulatory system
  • None for general plan
  • Red t-shirt for Jeremy
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • General Plan
    • Demonstrate scientific process
    • Identify parts of circulatory system
    • Work cooperatively
    • New look at scientific process
    • Enjoy learning science
learning objectives20
Learning Objectives
  • Jeremy
    • Understand blood is red
    • Understand blood passes through body
    • Integrate sensory needs into classroom
    • Attend to activity for extended period
  • Describe scientific process of circulatory system
  • Assign students to groups
  • Encourage creative role play of process
  • Compare path of circulatory system to map
  • Each student is assigned a "character”
  • Student reads function of "character”
  • Each student "acts out" function in order
  • Assign role of "blood" to Jeremy
  • Jeremy "passes" through system
  • Students are asked to review the process
  • Students write down steps of process
  • Check for understanding of "blood”
  • Assemble puzzle of circulatory system
  • Encourage Jeremy to share feelings
  • Understand function of "character"?
  • "Act-out" in proper sequence?
  • Recall steps of process in written format?
  • Did Jeremy participate fully?
  • Was Jeremy tolerant of input?
  • Was Jeremy able to express feelings?