ch 6 cellular respiration n.
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Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration. 6.14 – 6.15. Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP. Where do glycolysis & Krebs cycle take place & how much ATP do they make? Cytoplasm & mitochondrial matrix, 2 ATP each= 4 total What energy source carries energy to the ETC? NADH & FADH2

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review each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of atp
Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP
  • Where do glycolysis & Krebs cycle take place & how much ATP do they make?
  • Cytoplasm & mitochondrial matrix, 2 ATP each= 4 total
  • What energy source carries energy to the ETC?
  • NADH & FADH2
  • Because most ATP is generated from ETC which depends heavily on O2, if there was no O2 what would happen to cell?
  • It would starve from lack of energy and may die.
fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration
Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration
  • How can yeast survive in an anaerobic environment?
  • Glycolysis, uses no O2, provides 2 ATP, enough energy to survive
  • How does the yeast replenish the NAD+ used in glycolysis?
  • Alcohol fermentations is the process that regenerates NAD+
  • How do humans use this process to their advantage?
  • CO2 makes bubbles for beer, sparkling wine & ethanol from glucose.
  • How does this keep glycolysis working?
  • CO2 is removed, NADH is oxidized, recharging the cell with NAD+ and forming ethanol (energy rich)
slide4
What is another type of fermentation that happens in many cells (including fast muscle fibers of animals)?
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • How does this happen?
  • lactic acid is produced when NADH is oxidized back to NAD+
  • What happens to the CO2?
  • The ATP production is the same (from glycolysis) but no CO2 is given off & lactic acid retains all 3 carbons from pyruvic acid.
  • What happens to the lactic acid?
  • Converted back to pyruvic acid when O2 is present. (Dairy industry uses lactic acid fermentation from bacteria to make cheese and yogurt)
slide5
What is a strict anaerobe?
  • Not a mean bacteria but a bacterial that must live in stagnant ponds or deep in soil (for them oxygen is poison)
  • What is a facultative anaerobe?
  • Yeast, E. coli or other bacteria that can make ATP by chemiosmosis or fermentation, depending if O2 is available.
  • How is pyruvic acid special?
  • If O2 is available yeast will use this more efficient process (aerobic respiration), that is why to make beer & wine yeast must be grown anaerobically, to ferment sugars & make ethanol (see gas valves venting off excess CO2 & keeping air out.