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Business Law: Ch 8. Consideration. Consideration. Consideration – What a person demands and generally must receive in order to make promise legally binding. Consideration. Three Requirement of Consideration

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business law ch 8

Business Law: Ch 8

Consideration

consideration
Consideration
  • Consideration – What a person demands and generally must receive in order to make promise legally binding.
consideration1
Consideration
  • Three Requirement of Consideration
    • Each party must make a promise, perform an act, or forbear (refrain from doing something)
    • Each parties promise, act, or forbearance must be in exchange for a return promise, act, or forbearance by the other party
    • What each party exchanges must have legal value (must be worth something in the eyes of the law)
consideration2
Consideration
  • Consideration distinguishes a contractual promise from a promise to make a gift.
  • Gift – Transfer of ownership without receiving anything in return.
    • Gifts are not generally not legally enforceable
    • Gift only becomes legally binding once the gift is exchanged.
    • Donor – person giving the gift
    • Donee – Person receiving the gift
promise act or forbearance
Promise, Act, or Forbearance
  • Forbearance – to not do something
contractual exchange
Contractual Exchange
  • Promisor – Person promising an action or forbearance
  • Promisee – Person to whom promise is made to.
  • Consideration must be mutual
legal value
Legal Value
  • Legal Value – Means there has been a change in a party’s legal position as a result of the contract
    • Most commonly found in the exchange of two benefits.
    • Can also be found in the exchange of benefit for a detriment (forbearing of a legal right)
    • Example – If you refrain from driving until you are 25, I will give you $25,000.
      • Not a benefit but a detriment to you (giving up your legal right)
adequacy of consideration
Adequacy of Consideration
  • Economic value is unimportant as long as there is genuine assent
  • However, if the economic value is evidence of mutual mistake, duress, undue influence, or fraud, the contract could be declared unconscionable (grossly unfair or oppressive) and may not be enforceable
nominal consideration
Nominal Consideration
  • Nominal Consideration – token amount stated
8 1 assessment
8-1 Assessment
  • Turn to page 144 and complete 8-1 Assessment
8 1 answers
8-1 Answers
  • False
  • Gift
  • False
  • False
  • Adequacy or economic value
  • A (nominal)
8 1 answers1
8-1 Answers
  • The parties are bound. Given up the right
  • The neighbors did receive consideration
  • Yes. The adequacy of consideration will not be questioned.
circumstantial consideration
Circumstantial Consideration
  • Illusory Promises – Clause in contract that allows you to escape the legal obligation
    • Termination Clauses – Power to withdraw from a contract if business circumstances change.
    • Output Contract – Buyers agree to purchase all of a particular producer’s production
    • Requirements Contract – Seller agrees to supply all of the needs of a particular buyer.
circumstantial consideration1
Circumstantial Consideration
  • Existing Duty – A person sometimes promises to do something that he or she already is obligated to do by law or contract
    • Such a promise or act, cannot serve as consideration
existing duties
Existing Duties
  • Existing Public Duty – Agreement creates a benefit for you, but you don’t incur a detriment because you are not giving up a legal right
    • Example: Aunt promises to pay you $10,000 if you promise to not purchase alcohol for two years and you say “OK”. No contract
existing duties1
Existing Duties
  • Existing Private Duty – A person cannot demand further compensation for carrying out a contractual promise already made
  • Settlement of Liquidated Debts (is where the parties agree that the debt exists and on the amount of the debt)
    • When a creditor (person to whom the debt is owed) agrees to accept less than the total amount due in full settlement from the debtor (person who owes money) there is no consideration if the debt is liquidated
existing duties2
Existing Duties
  • Settlement of Liquidated Debts
    • Assume Frank borrows $1000 from Carrie. The loan is to be paid back in one year with interest at 10% per year, or a total payment of $1,100. Frank sends a check to Carrie on the due date for $1,000 and a note saying “Sorry, I’m strapped for cash. You will have to accept this in full payment.” Carrie endorses and cashes the check.
existing duties3
Existing Duties
  • Settlement of Liquidated Debts
    • A debtor can settle a claim by paying less than the full amount if additional consideration is given.
    • Must be mutual agreement
existing duties4
Existing Duties
  • Settlement of Unliquidated Debts
    • When there is a genuine dispute between the parties about how much is owed is referred to as unliquidated.
    • Accord and Satisfaction - Payment offered in full settlement by the debtor and accepted by the creditor settles the claim
      • Accord – New agreement on the sum
existing duties5
Existing Duties
  • Release – An agreement, due to financial pressures, an injured party in a tort will agree to discharge another from liability for the tort in return for a monetary payment or other consideration
  • Composition with Creditors – Group a creditors will cooperatively agree to accept less than what they are entitled to, in full satisfaction of their claims against a debtor.
    • Debtor agrees not to file for bankruptcy
    • Creditors agree not to sue for the entire amount
false consideration
False Consideration
  • Mutual Gift – Something of value given by one party to another without demanding anything in return
  • Past Performance – Act already performed cannot serve as consideration
8 2 assessment
8-2 Assessment
  • Turn to page 148 and complete the 9 questions
exceptions to the requirement of consideration
Exceptions to the Requirement of Consideration
  • Promises to Charitable Organizations
    • Gift is enforceable providing the charity states a specific use for the money and actually acts in reliance on the pledge
  • Promises Covered by the UCC
    • Modifications made in good-faith needs no new consideration
exceptions to the requirement of consideration1
Exceptions to the Requirement of Consideration
  • Promises Barred from Collection by Statute
    • Statute of Limitations – Time limit to bring a lawsuit
      • Once you become aware of a legal claim, you must sue before statute of limitations passes or you lose the right to litigate
  • Debts Discharged in Bankruptcy
      • Even after a debt has been discharged as a result of bankruptcy, the obligation may be reinstated by a promise of the debtor. This is done by cosignor
exceptions to the requirement of consideration2
Exceptions to the Requirement of Consideration
  • Promissory Estoppel
    • Prevents promisors from stating in court that they did not receive consideration for their promises
    • 4 conditions to invoke Promissory Estoppel
      • The promisor should reasonably foresee that the promisee will rely on the promise
      • The promisee does, in fact, act in reliance on the promise
      • The promisee would suffer a substantial economic loss if the promise is not enforced
      • Injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise