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The Legionary Soldier. Each was a Roman citizen and a full-time professional who had signed on for 25 years Highly trained in infantry and specialized in other fields as well Legion normally consisted of 5000 foot soldiers

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the legionary soldier
The Legionary Soldier
  • Each was a Roman citizen and a full-time professional who had signed on for 25 years
  • Highly trained in infantry and specialized in other fields as well
  • Legion normally consisted of 5000 foot soldiers
  • Staff of engineers, architects, carpenters, smiths, doctors, medical orderlies, clerks, accountants
  • Capable of constructing forts and camps, manufacturing weapons and equipment, and building roads
additional info
Additional Info
  • Legion was recruited by an army commander after given the task by the Senate
  • Legion disbanded after mission was completed
  • Each received an eagle standard from the Emperor, which was their most prided symbol
additional info1
Additional Info
  • Highly advanced for the times because Roman soldiers were professionals
  • Five officer positions: centurio, optio, signifer, cornicen, vexillarius
  • Main tactical element was the cohort

Hector, Jeesa, Bryce, Tyler, and Audrey

  • Requirements for becoming a soldier:
    • Must be a Roman citizen
    • Must pass medical examination
    • Not necessarily from Rome or even Italy
    • At least 20 years old
    • Stay in the army for at least 25 years
    • Retire with a pension or a gift of land to farm
    • Not allowed to marry.
  • Military manual for choosing recruits:
    • Alert eyes, head upright, broad-chested with powerful shoulders and brawny arms.
    • Long fingers
    • Not pot-bellied or a fat bottomed
    • Calves and feet should not beflabby; they should be made entirely of tough sinew.
    • Must choose men who are outstanding
    • Not only in body but also in the mind

- According to Vegetius

  • Legion of the Republic had 4,200 men
  • Military Divisions
    • 1 Legio = 10 cohortes1 Cohors = 6 centuriae1 Centuria = 10 contubernia1 Contubernia = 8 men
roman weapons training and armor

Roman Weapons, Training, and Armor

By: Meg Dominey, JJ Joh, Kathy Li, Andy Reagin, AbigalSwangel

book summary
Book Summary
  • Roman Training: swimming, jumping, marching up to 24 miles at a time, weightlifting, practice with wooden swords
  • Weapons: Gladius (short sword), Pugio (dagger), Pilum (javelin)
  • Armor: LoricaSegmentata (Segmented Armor), Cingulum (Military Belt), Caligae (Heavy Duty Sandals), Scutum (Shield)
  • Gladius – Sheathed at the side, these were more effective when used to stab rather than to cut.
  • Pugio – Carried in line with the shield for last effort
  • Pilum – Not to be confused with the “Hasta,” the pilum was a javelin with a ball at the base. The ball was used to prevent reuse causing an awkward weight distribution in the opponents shield


  • LoricaSegmentata – Made from individual iron segments which allowed for a wider range of motion without substantial sacrifice of protection
  • Cingulum – Utility belt often used as a way to display social status
  • Caligae – Open-toed sandals with nails in the soles for traction. The sandals were incredibly thick to prevent wear
  • Scutum– Almost as tall as the soldier, the shield was rectangular and curved, painted with the device of the legion. Hands were protected by the umbo (a metal semi-sphere)
legionary soldier

Legionary Soldier

Life and Work as a Soldier

C.J. Gillmore, Dhruti Patel, GaYeonKo, AshishBiju, Eric Stephens, Jonathan Yin


Roman citizens only

  • Required Medical Exam
  • Prepare for physically taxing military work
  • Assigned for 25 years at time of recruitment

Very little combat duty

  • Positions/work depended on location of station
  • Jobs
    • Accountants
    • Medical
    • they constructed forts and camps
      • Temporary camps similar to trenches
      • Permanent Facilities, elaborate forts
    • manufactured weapons + equip.
    • built roads, some still used today
  • Positions/work depended on location of station

Paid 225 denarii per year

  • Expected to provide:
    • Food
    • Clothing
    • Equipment
  • Moved locations often
pay and promotion


By: Syed, Sidney, Adam, Alex, Shiyen, and Kebron

  • Soldiers were paid between 255-300 denarii
  • pay was the same in war and peace
  • Deductions made before it got to the soldiers (gross pay)
  • Soldiers were required to pay for food, clothing, equipment, and savings along with the gross pay
  • Left with 1/5 of gross pay afterwards
  • Certain cases of discontent occurred due to these deductions
  • Occasional mutiny
  • Promotions may have been awarded to any rank of soldier
  • Granted extra pay and relief of some duties
  • Honorable discharge after 20-25 years of service w/ lump sum of 3k denarii or land a



fun facts
Fun facts
  • most significant step in any successful army career of a Roman plebeian was the promotion to the centurionate. To become a centurion meant having become an officer.
  • ordinary soldier's promotion would most likely start with the rank of optio.
  • army provided several stepping stones up the ladder of promotion
auxiliaries reading
Auxiliaries - Reading
  • Men who came from different parts of the Roman empire
  • Developed different skills such as archers and slingers
  • Most prestigious auxiliaries were the cavalry
  • Cavalry used to support the infantry.
  • Protected the center, launched attacks, and pursue defeated enemy forces
  • Paid less than legionary soldiers
  • When they completed their service, they became roman citizens, if not already.
  • Way of making other provinces feel loyal to Roman rule.